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Posted in Beautiful Women, Lesbians, SEXY, مزز عريا وبالملابس | Comments Off

Steve McQueen

Steve McQueen
Terence Stephen “Steve” McQueen (March 24, 1930 – November 7, 1980) was an American actor. He was nicknamed “The King of Cool.” His “anti-hero” persona, which he developed at the height of the Vietnam counterculture, made him one of the top box-office draws of the 1960s and 1970s. McQueen received an Academy Award nomination for his role in The Sand Pebbles. His other popular films include The Magnificent Seven, The Blob, The Great Escape, The Thomas Crown Affair, Bullitt, The Getaway, Papillon, and The Towering Inferno. In 1974, he became the highest-paid movie star in the world. Although McQueen was combative with directors and producers, his popularity put him in high demand and enabled him to command large salaries.

He was an avid racer of both motorcycles and cars. While he studied acting, he supported himself partly by competing in weekend motorcycle races and bought his first motorcycle with his winnings. He is recognized for performing many of his own stunts, but one of the most widely claimed and cherished examples of this—that he did the majority of the stunt driving for his character during the high-speed chase scene in Bullitt—was revealed not to be true by his most trusted stuntman and stunt driver Loren James. Another example of the legend occasionally overshadowing reality was the famed “barbed wire jump” in the 1963 film The Great Escape—a stunt performed by McQueen’s good friend and champion motorcycle racer Bud Ekins.
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Early life
McQueen was born Terence Steven McQueen in Beech Grove, Indiana, a suburb of Indianapolis, in Marion County. His father, William Terence McQueen, a stunt pilot for a barnstorming flying circus, abandoned McQueen’s mother six months after first meeting her. His mother, Julia Ann (née Crawford), was allegedly a rebellious alcoholic prostitute.
Unable to cope with bringing up a small child, she left him with her parents (Victor and Lillian) in Slater, Missouri, in 1933. Shortly thereafter, as the Great Depression set in, McQueen and his grandparents moved in with Lillian’s brother Claude to the latter’s farm in Slater. McQueen was raised as a Roman Catholic.

He had good memories of the time spent on his great-uncle Claude’s farm. In recalling Claude, McQueen stated “He was a very good man, very strong, very fair. I learned a lot from him.” On McQueen’s fourth birthday, Claude gave him a red tricycle, which McQueen later claimed started his interest in racing. At age 8, he was taken back by his mother and lived with her and her new husband in Indianapolis. McQueen retained a special memory of leaving the farm: “The day I left the farm Uncle Claude gave me a personal going-away present; a gold pocket watch, with an inscription inside the case.” The inscription read: “To Steve – who has been a son to me.”
McQueen, who was dyslexicand partially deaf as a result of a childhood ear infection, did not adjust well to his new life. His new step-father would beat him so badly that at the age of nine he left home to live on the streets. Within a couple of years he was running with a street gang and committing acts of petty crime. Unable to control McQueen’s behavior, his mother sent him back to Slater again. A couple of years later, when McQueen was 12, Julia wrote to Claude asking that McQueen be returned to her once again, to live in her new home in Los Angeles, California. Julia, whose second marriage had ended in divorce, had married a third time.

This began an unsettled period in McQueen’s life. By McQueen’s own account, he and his new stepfather “locked horns immediately.” McQueen recalled him as “a prime son of a bitch” who was not averse to using his fists on both McQueen and his mother. As McQueen began to rebel once again, he was sent back to live with Claude a final time. At age 14, McQueen left Claude’s farm without saying goodbye and joined a circus for a short time, after which he slowly drifted back to his mother and stepfather in Los Angeles, and resumed his life as a gang member and petty criminal. On one occasion, McQueen was caught stealing hubcaps by police, who handed him over to his stepfather. The latter proceeded to beat McQueen severely, and ended the fight by throwing McQueen down a flight of stairs. McQueen looked up at his stepfather and said, “You lay your stinkin’ hands on me again and I swear, I’ll kill ya.”
After this, McQueen’s stepfather convinced Julia to sign a court order stating that McQueen was incorrigible and remanding him to the California Junior Boys Republic in Chino, California. Here, McQueen slowly began to change and mature. He was not popular with the other boys at first: “Say the boys had a chance once a month to load into a bus and go into town to see a movie. And they lost out because one guy in the bungalow didn’t get his work done right. Well, you can pretty well guess they’re gonna have something to say about that. I paid his dues with the other fellows quite a few times. I got my lumps, no doubt about it. The other guys in the bungalow had ways of paying you back for interfering with their well-being.”
Ultimately, however, McQueen decided to give Boys Republic a fair shot. He became a role model for the other boys when he was elected to the Boys Council, a group who made the rules and regulations governing the boys’ lives. (He eventually left Boys Republic at 16 and when he later became famous, he regularly returned to talk to the boys there. He also personally responded to every letter he received from the boys there, and retained a lifelong association.)
After McQueen left Chino at 16, he returned to Julia, now living in Greenwich Village, but almost immediately left again and gained employment as a “towel boy” in a brothel where his remuneration included unlimited access to the “merchandise”. He then met two sailors from the Merchant Marine and volunteered to serve on a ship bound for the Dominican Republic. Once there, he abandoned his new post, eventually making his way to Texas, and drifted from job to job. He worked as an oil rigger, as a trinket salesman in a carnival, and as a lumberjack.
Military service
In 1947, McQueen joined the United States Marine Corps and was quickly promoted to Private First Class and assigned to an armored unit. Initially, he reverted to his prior rebelliousness, and as a result was demoted to private seven times. He went UA (Unauthorized Absence) by failing to return after a weekend pass had expired. He instead stayed away with a girlfriend for two weeks, until the shore patrol caught him. He resisted arrest and as a result spent 41 days in the brig.
After this, McQueen resolved to focus his energies on self-improvement and embraced the Marines’ discipline. He saved the lives of five other Marines during an Arctic exercise, pulling them from a tank before it broke through ice into the sea. He was also assigned to an honor guard responsible for guarding then-U.S. President Harry Truman’s yacht. McQueen served until 1950 when he was honorably discharged.
The 1950s
In 1952, with financial assistance provided by the G.I. Bill, McQueen began studying acting at Sanford Meisner’s Neighborhood Playhouse. Purportedly, the future “king of cool” delivered his first piece of dialogue on a theatre stage in a 1952 play produced by the legendary star of the Yiddish theatre, Molly Picon. McQueen’s character spoke one brief line: “Allez iz forloren.” (“All is lost.”).

He also began to earn money by competing in weekend motorcycle races at Long Island City Raceway and purchased the first of many motorcycles, a used Harley Davidson. He soon became an excellent racer, and came home each weekend with about $100 in winnings (about $805 in 2009 dollars adjusted for inflation). He appeared as a musical judge in an episode of ABC’s Jukebox Jury, which aired in the 1953–1954 season.

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Steve McQueen in The Great St. Louis Bank Robbery
After several minor roles in productions including Peg o’ My Heart, The Member of the Wedding, and Two Fingers of Pride, McQueen landed his first film role in Somebody Up There Likes Me, directed by Robert Wise and starring Paul Newman. He made his Broadway debut in 1955 in the play A Hatful of Rain, starring Ben Gazzara.

In late 1955, at the age of 25, McQueen left New York and headed for California, where he moved into a house on Vestal Avenue in the Echo Park area and began seeking acting jobs in Hollywood. When McQueen appeared in a two-part television presentation entitled The Defenders, Hollywood manager Hilly Elkins (who managed McQueen’s first wife, Neile) took note of him and decided that B-movies would be a good place for the young actor to make his mark. McQueen was subsequently hired to appear in the films Never Love a Stranger,
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The Blob (his first leading role), and The Great St. Louis Bank Robbery.
McQueen’s first breakout role did not come in film but on television. He appeared on Dale Robertson’s NBC western series, Tales of Wells Fargo. Then McQueen’s manager, Elkins, successfully lobbied Vincent M. Fennelly, producer of the western series Trackdown, to have McQueen read for the part of bounty hunter Josh Randall in a Trackdown episode. McQueen appeared as Randall in the episode, having been cast opposite series lead and old New York motorcycle racing buddy Robert Culp. McQueen then filmed the pilot episode, which became the series titled Wanted: Dead or Alive, which began on CBS in September 1958.
The 1960s

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McQueen and then-wife Neile Adams in Alfred Hitchcock Presents, 1960.
In the interviews included in the DVD release of Wanted, Trackdown’s star Robert Culp claims credit for first bringing McQueen to Hollywood and landing him the part of Randall. He claims to have taught McQueen the “art of the fast-draw”, adding that, on the second day of filming, McQueen beat him. McQueen became a household name as a result of this series. Randall’s special holster held a sawed-off .44-40 Winchester rifle nicknamed the “Mare’s Leg” instead of the standard six-gun carried by the typical Western character, although the cartridges seen in the gunbelt were dummy .45-70, chosen because they “looked tougher”. Coupled with the generally negative image of the bounty hunter (noted in the three-part DVD special on the background of the series) this added to the anti-heroimage infused with a mixture of mystery and detachment that made this show stand out from the typical TV Western. The 94 episodes from 1958 until early 1961, kept McQueen steadily employed.

At 29, McQueen got a significant break when Frank Sinatra removed Sammy Davis, Jr., from the film Never So Few after Davis supposedly made some mildly negative remarks about Sinatra in a radio interview, and Davis’s role went to McQueen. Sinatra saw something special in McQueen, and ensured that the young actor got plenty of good close-ups in a role that earned McQueen favorable reviews. McQueen’s character, Bill Ringa, was never more comfortable than when driving at high speed—in this case at the wheel of a jeep—or handling a switchblade or a tommy-gun.
After Never So Few, the film’s director John Sturges cast McQueen in his next movie, promising to “give him the camera.” The Magnificent Seven (1960), in which he played Vin Tanner and co-starred with Yul Brynner, Robert Vaughn, Charles Bronson and James Coburn, became McQueen’s first major hit and led to his withdrawal from Wanted: Dead or Alive. McQueen’s focused portrayal of the taciturn second lead catapulted his career. His added touches in each scene, such as shaking a shotgun round before loading it and wiping his hat rim, which annoyed co-star Brynner, who protested that McQueen was trying to steal his spotlight. (In his autobiography, Eli Wallach, who acted as the movie’s villain, Calvera, reports struggling to conceal his amusement while watching the filming of the funeral-procession scene where Brynner’s and McQueen’s characters first meet: Brynner was clearly furious at McQueen’s shotgun-round-shake, which effectively diverted the viewer’s attention to McQueen.) Brynner also refused to draw his gun in the same scene with McQueen, not wanting to have his character outdrawn
McQueen played the lead in the next big Sturges film, 1963′s
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The Great Escape, which gave Hollywood’s depiction of the otherwise true story of an historical mass escape from a World War II POW camp, Stalag Luft III. Insurance concerns prevented McQueen from performing the film’s widely noted motorcycle leap, which was instead done by his friend and fellow cycle enthusiast Bud Ekins, who resembled McQueen from a distance. When Johnny Carson later tried to congratulate McQueen for the jump during a broadcast of The Tonight Show, McQueen said, “It wasn’t me. That was Bud Ekins.” This film established McQueen’s box-office clout and cemented his status as a superstar.
In 1963, McQueen starred with Natalie Wood in
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Love with the Proper Stranger. He later appeared in a prequel as the titular Nevada Smith, a character from Harold Robbins’ The Carpetbaggers who had been portrayed by Alan Ladd two years earlier in a movie version of that novel.
McQueen also earned his only Academy Award nomination in 1966 for his role as an engine room sailor in
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The Sand Pebbles, in which he starred opposite Richard Attenborough and Candice Bergen.

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McQueen as Detective Frank Bullitt in the film’s iconic car chase scene.
He followed his Oscar nomination with 1968′s Bullitt, one of his most famous films, co-starring Jacqueline Bisset and Robert Vaughn. It featured an unprecedented (and endlessly imitated) auto chase through San Francisco. Although McQueen did do the driving that appeared in closeup, this was only about 10% of what is seen in the film’s car chase. The rest of the driving by the McQueen character was done by famed stunt drivers Bud Ekins and Loren James.
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Bullitt went so far over budget that Warner Brothers cancelled their contract on the rest of his films, seven in all.
When Bullitt turned out to be a huge box office success Warner Brothers tried to woo him back, but he refused to be wooed and in fact his next film was made with an independent studio and released by United Artists. For this film, McQueen went for a change of image, playing a debonair role as a wealthy executive in The Thomas Crown Affair with Faye Dunaway in 1968. The following year he made the Southern period piece The Reivers, followed in 1971 by the auto-racing drama Le Mans.
The 1970s
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Then came The Getaway during which he met future wife Ali MacGraw. He worked for director Sam Peckinpah again with the leading role in Junior Bonner in 1972, a story of an aging rodeo rider. He followed this with a physically demanding role as a Devils Island prisoner in 1973′s Papillon featuring Dustin Hoffman as his character’s tragic sidekick.
In 1973, The Rolling Stones referred to McQueen in the song “Star Star” from the album Goat’s Head Soup for which an amused McQueen reportedly gave personal permission. The lines were “Star fucker, star fucker, star fucker, star fucker star/ Yes you are, yes you are, yes you are/Yeah, Ali MacGraw got mad with you/For givin’ head to Steve McQueen”.
By the time of The Getaway, McQueen had become the world’s highest paid actor. But after 1974′s The Towering Inferno, co-starring with his long-time personal friend and chief professional rival Paul Newman and reuniting him with Dunaway, became a tremendous box-office success, McQueen all but disappeared from Hollywood and the public eye, preferring to focus on motorcycle racing and traveling around the country in a motorhome and on one of his vintage Indian motorcycles. He did not return to acting until 1978 with An Enemy of the People, playing against type as a heavily bearded, bespectacled 19th-century doctor in this adaptation of a Henrik Ibsen play. The film was shown briefly in theaters and is available on DVD through Amazon.
His last films were both loosely based on true stories: Tom Horn, a Western adventure about a former Army scout turned professional gunman who worked for the big cattle ranchers, hunting down rustlers, and who was later hanged for murder in the shooting death of a sheepherder, and then The Hunter, an urban action movie about a modern-day bounty hunter, both released in 1980.
Missed roles
McQueen was offered the lead role in Breakfast at Tiffany’s but was unable to accept due to his Wanted:
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Dead or Alive contract (the role went to George Peppard). He also turned down parts in Ocean’s Eleven, Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (his attorneys and agents could not agree with Paul Newman’s attorneys and agents on who would get top billing), The Driver, Apocalypse Now, California Split, Dirty Harry, A Bridge Too Far, andThe French Connection (he did not want to do another cop film).
According to director John Frankenheimer and actor James Garner in bonus interviews for the DVD of the film Grand Prix, McQueen was Frankenheimer’s first choice for the lead role of American Formula One race car driver Pete Aron. Frankenheimer was unable to meet with McQueen to offer him the role and instead sent Edward Lewis, his business partner and the producer of Grand Prix. McQueen and Lewis instantly clashed, the meeting was a disaster and the role instead went to Garner.

He was the first choice for director Steven Spielberg for Close Encounters of the Third Kind. According to Spielberg on a documentary on the Close Encounters DVD, Spielberg met him at a bar, where McQueen drank beer after beer. Before leaving, McQueen told Spielberg that he could not accept the role because he was unable to cry on cue. Spielberg offered to take the crying scene out of the movie, but McQueen demurred, saying that it was the best scene in the whole script. The role eventually went to Richard Dreyfuss.

Spy novelist Jeremy Duns revealed that Steve McQueen was considered for the lead role in a film adaptation of The Diamond Smugglers, written by James Bond creator Ian Fleming; McQueen would play ‘John Blaize’, a secret agent going undercover to infiltrate a diamond-smuggling ring in South Africa. There were many complications with the project which was eventually shelved, although a 1964 screenplay does exist.
McQueen and Barbra Streisand were both tentatively cast in The Gauntlet, but the two did not get along due to a clash of egos. Both withdrew from the project, and the lead roles were filled in by Clint Eastwood and Sondra Locke.

McQueen expressed interest in starring as the Rambo character in First Blood when David Morrell’s novel appeared in 1972, but the producers eventually rejected him because of his age. He was offered the title role in The Bodyguard (with Diana Ross) when it was first proposed in 1976, but the film did not reach production until years after McQueen’s death. Quigley Down Under was in development as early as 1974, with McQueen in consideration for the lead, but by the time production began in 1980, McQueen was too ill and the project was scrapped until a decade later, when Tom Selleck starred. McQueen was offered the lead in Raise the Titanic but felt the script was flat. He was under contract to Irwin Allen after appearing in The Towering Inferno and was offered a part in a sequel in 1980, which he turned down. The film was scrapped and Newman was brought in by Allen to make When Time Ran Out, which turned out to be a huge box office bomb. McQueen died shortly after passing on The Towering Inferno 2.
Motor racing

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Modern advertisement with McQueen photo and quote.
McQueen was an avid motorcycle and racecar enthusiast. When he had the opportunity to drive in a movie, he performed many of his own stunts.
Perhaps the most memorable were the car chase in Bullitt and motorcycle chase in The Great Escape. Although the jump over the fence in The Great Escape was actually done by Bud Ekins for insurance purposes, McQueen did have a considerable amount of screen time riding his 650cc Triumph TR6 Trophy motorcycle. It was difficult to find riders as skilled as McQueen. At one point, due to editing, McQueen is seen in a German uniform chasing himself on another bike.

Together with John Sturges, McQueen planned to make Day of the Champion, a movie about Formula One racing. He was busy with the delayed The Sand Pebbles, though. They had a contract with the German Nürburgring, and after John Frankenheimer shot scenes there for Grand Prix, the reels had to be turned over to Sturges. Frankenheimer was ahead in schedule anyway, and the McQueen/Sturges project was called off.
McQueen considered becoming a professional race car driver. In the 1970 12 Hours of Sebring race, Peter Revson and McQueen (driving with a cast on his left foot from a motorcycle accident two weeks before) won with a Porsche 908/02 in the 3 litre class and missed winning overall by 23 seconds to Mario Andretti/Ignazio Giunti/Nino Vaccarella in a 5 litre Ferrari 512S. The same Porsche 908 was entered by his production company Solar Productions as a camera car for Le Mans in the 1970 24 Hours of Le Mans later that year. McQueen wanted to drive a Porsche 917 with Jackie Stewart in that race, but his film backers threatened to pull their support if he did. Faced with the choice of driving for 24 hours in the race or driving the entire summer making the film, McQueen opted to do the latter. Le Mans is considered by some to be the most historically realistic representation in the history of the race.

McQueen also competed in off-road motorcycle racing. His first off-road motorcycle was a Triumph 500cc that he purchased from friend and stunt man Ekins. McQueen raced in many top off-road races on the West Coast, including the Baja 1000, the Mint 400 and the Elsinore Grand Prix. In 1964, with Ekins on their Triumph TR6 Trophys, he represented the United States in the International Six Days Trial, a form of off-road motorcycling Olympics. He was inducted in the Off-road Motorsports Hall of Fame in 1978. In 1971, Solar Productions funded the now-classic motorcycle documentary On Any Sunday, in which McQueen is featured along with racing legends Mert Lawwill and Malcolm Smith. Also in 1971, McQueen was on the cover of Sports Illustrated magazine riding a Husqvarna dirt bike. McQueen also designed a motorsports bucket seat, for which a patent was issued in 1971.

McQueen collected classic motorcycles. By the time of his death, his collection included over 100 and was valued in the millions of dollars.
In a segment filmed for The Ed Sullivan Show, McQueen drove Sullivan around a desert area in a dune buggy at high speed. Afterward, Sullivan said, “That was a helluva ride!”

He owned several exotic sports cars, including:
• Porsche 917, Porsche 908 and Ferrari 512 race cars from the Le Mans film.

• 1963 Ferrari 250 Lusso Berlinetta
• Jaguar D-Type XKSS (Right-Hand Drive)
• Porsche 356 Speedster

To his dismay, McQueen was never able to own the legendary Ford Mustang GT 390 that he drove in Bullitt, which featured a highly modified drivetrain that suited McQueen’s driving style. One of the two Mustangs was so badly damaged that it was judged beyond repair and scrapped. The second car still exists, but the owner has consistently refused to sell it at any price.
Personal life
McQueen was married three times and had two children. On November 2, 1956, he married
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actress Neile Adams, by whom he had a daughter, Terry Leslie (June 5, 1959 – March 19, 1998 ), and a son, Chad (born December 28, 1960). McQueen and Adams divorced in 1972. McQueen then married his The Getaway co-star
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Ali MacGraw on August 31, 1973, but this marriage too ended in divorce in 1978. MacGraw suffered a miscarriage during their marriage. On January 16, 1980, less than a year before his death, McQueen married model
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Barbara Minty. One of McQueen’s four grandchildren is
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actor Steven R. McQueen.
In the early 1970s, while separated from Adams and prior to meeting MacGraw, McQueen had a lengthy relationship with model-actress
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Barbara Leigh, his co-star in Junior Bonner. Leigh became pregnant during the relationship and had an abortion. Biographer Marc Eliot wrote that McQueen had an affair with his Bullitt co-star

Jacqueline Bisset, although Bisset has not confirmed this.
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Actress-model Lauren Hutton has claimed that she and McQueen had an affair in the early 1960s.
McQueen had a daily two-hour exercise regimen, involving weightlifting and at one point running five miles, seven days a week. McQueen also learned the martial art Tang Soo Do from ninth degree black belt Pat E. Johnson.

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Arrested in Anchorage for drunk driving.
However, he was also known for his prolific drug use (William Claxton claimed he smoked marijuana almost every day; others said he used a tremendous amount of cocaine in the early 1970s). In addition, like many actors of his era, he was a heavy cigarette smoker. He sometimes drank to excess, and was arrested for driving while intoxicated in Anchorage, Alaska in 1972.

After Charles Manson incited the murder of five people, including McQueen’s friends Sharon Tate and Jay Sebring, at Tate’s home on August 9, 1969, it was reported that McQueen was another potential target of the killers. According to his first wife, McQueen then began carrying a handgun at all times in public, including at Sebring’s funeral. In fact, two months after the murders, police found a hit list with McQueen’s name on it, a result of McQueen’s company having rejected a Manson screenplay. In 2011 it was revealed that Sebring had invited McQueen to the party at Tate’s house on the night of the murders. According to McQueen, he had invited a girlfriend to come with him, she instead suggested an intimate night at home which saved his life.

McQueen had an unusual reputation for demanding free items in bulk from studios when agreeing to do a film, such as electric razors, jeans and several other products. It was later found out that McQueen requested these things because he was donating them to the Boy’s Republic reformatory school for displaced youth, where he had spent time during his teen years. McQueen made occasional visits to the school to spend time with the students, often to play pool and to speak with them about his experiences.
After discovering a mutual interest in racing, McQueen and his Great Escape co-star James Garner became good friends. Garner lived directly down the hill from McQueen and, as McQueen recalled, “I could see that Jim was very neat around his place. Flowers trimmed, no papers in the yard … grass always cut. So, just to piss him off, I’d start lobbing empty beer cans down the hill into his driveway. He’d have his drive all spic ‘n’ span when he left the house, then get home to find all these empty cans. Took him a long time to figure out it was me”.
Barbara Minty McQueen in her book, Steve McQueen: The Last Mile, writes of McQueen becoming an Evangelical Christian toward the end of his life. This was due in part to the influences of his flying instructor, Sammy Mason, and his son Pete, and Barbara. McQueen attended his local church, Ventura Missionary Church, and was visited by evangelist Billy Graham shortly before his death.
McQueen was an avid dirt bike rider, running a BSA Hornet. He was to co-drive in a Triumph 2500 PI for the British Leyland team in the 1970 London-Mexico rally, but had to turn it down due to movie commitments. He also loved flying, and owned among other aircraft a 1945 Stearman tail number N3188 (his student number in reform school), a 1946 Piper J3 Cub, and an award-winning 1931 Pitcairn PA-8 biplane, once flown as part of the U.S. Mail Service by famed World War I flying ace, Eddie Rickenbacker. They were hangared at Santa Paula Airport an hour northwest of Hollywood, where he lived his final days.

On November 7, 1980, McQueen died at the age of 50 in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico, following an operation to remove or reduce several metastatic tumors in his neck and abdomen.
McQueen developed a persistent cough in 1978; he gave up smoking cigarettes and underwent antibiotic treatments without improvement. Shortness of breath became more pronounced and on December 22, 1979, after the filming of The Hunter, a biopsy revealed pleural mesothelioma, a type of cancer associated with asbestos exposure for which there is no known cure. By February 1980, there was evidence of widespread metastasis. While he tried to keep the condition a secret, the National Enquirer disclosed that he had “terminal cancer” on March 11, 1980. In July, McQueen traveled to Rosarito Beach for unconventional treatment after U.S. doctors advised him that they could do nothing to prolong his life.
Controversy arose over McQueen’s Mexican trip, because McQueen sought a very non-traditional cancer treatment that used coffee enemas, frequent shampoos, injection of live cells from cows and sheep, massage and laetrile, a supposedly “natural” anti-cancer drug available in Mexico, but not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. McQueen himself paid for his unconventional medical treatments out of his own pocket with cash. McQueen was treated by William Donald Kelley, whose only medical license had been (until it was revoked in 1976) for orthodontics. Kelley’s methods created a sensation in both the traditional and tabloid press when it became known that McQueen was a patient. Despite metastasis of the cancer to much of McQueen’s body, Kelley publicly announced that McQueen would be completely cured and return to normal life. However, McQueen’s condition worsened and “huge” tumors developed in his abdomen. In late October 1980, McQueen flew to Ciudad Juárez to have an abdominal tumor on his liver (which weighed around five pounds) removed, despite the warnings by his U.S. doctors that the tumor was inoperable and that his heart would not withstand the surgery. McQueen checked into a Juarez clinic under the assumed name of “Sam Shepard” where the doctors and staff at the small, low-income clinic were unaware of his real identity. McQueen died of cardiac arrest. A following article in the El Paso Times noted that right before his death he awoke and asked for some ice and then died.

A few months before his death, McQueen had given a medical interview in which he blamed his condition on asbestos exposure. While McQueen felt that asbestos used in movie soundstage insulation and race-drivers’ protective suits and helmets could have been involved, he believed his illness was a direct result of massive exposure while removing asbestos lagging from pipes aboard a troop ship during his time in the Marines.
A memorial service was presided over by Leonard DeWitt of the Ventura Missionary Church. McQueen was cremated, and his ashes spread in the Pacific Ocean.

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With Virginia Gregg inWanted: Dead or Alive
Posthumously, McQueen remains one of the most popular stars, and his estate limits the licensing of his image to avoid the commercial saturation experienced by some other deceased celebrities. As of 2007, McQueen has entered the top 10 of highest-earning deceased celebrities.
He was inducted into the Hall of Great Western Performers in April 2007, in a ceremony at the National Cowboy and Western Heritage Museum.
In November 1999, McQueen was inducted into the Motorcycle Hall of Fame. He was credited with contributions including financing the film On Any Sunday, supporting a team of off-road riders, and enhancing the public image of motorcycling overall.
A film based on unfinished storyboards and notes developed by McQueen before his death was announced for production by McG’s production company Wonderland Sound and Vision. Yucatan is described as an “epic adventure heist” film, and is scheduled for release in 2013. Team Downey, the production company started by Robert Downey Jr. and his wife Susan Downey, has also expressed an interest in developing Yucatan for the screen.
The Beech Grove Public Library, in Beech Grove, Indiana, formally dedicated the Steve McQueen Birthplace Collection on March 16, 2010 to commemorate the 80th anniversary of McQueen’s birth on March 24, 1930.
In 2005, TV Guide ranked McQueen # 26 on its “50 Sexiest Stars of All Time” list.
Ford commercial
In 2005, Ford used Steve McQueen’s likeness in a commercial for the 2005 Mustang. In the commercial, a farmer builds a winding racetrack, which he circles in the 2005 Mustang. Out of the cornfield comes Steve McQueen. The farmer then tosses his keys to McQueen, who drives off in the new Mustang. McQueen’s likeness was created by a body double and some digital editing.
Ford secured the rights to McQueen’s likeness from the actor’s estate licensing agent GreenLight for an undisclosed sum.

The blue-tinted sunglasses (Persol 714) worn by McQueen in the 1968 movie The Thomas Crown Affair sold at a Bonhams & Butterfields auction in Los Angeles for $70,200 in 2006. One of his motorcycles, a 1937 Crocker, sold for a world-record price of $276,500 at the same auction. McQueen’s 1963 metallic-brown Ferrari 250 GT Berlinetta Lusso sold for $2.31 million USD at auction on August 16, 2007. Except for three motorcycles sold with other memorabilia in 2006, most of McQueen’s collection of 130 motorcycles was sold 4 years after his death. The 1970 Porsche 911S that he bought while making the film Le Mans and which starred in the opening sequence was sold at auction in August 2011 for $1.375 million. The Rolex Explorer II Reference 1655, is also now so-called Rolex Steve McQueen in the horology collectors world, but the Rolex Submariner Reference 5512 he was often photographed wearing in private moments sold for $234,000 at auction on June 11, 2009, a world-record price for the reference. McQueen was left-handed and wore his watch on his right wrist.
McQueen was a sponsored ambassador for Heuer watches. In the 1970 movie Le Mans, McQueen famously wore a blue faced Monaco 1133B Caliber 11 Automatic which has led to its cult status with watch collectors. His sold for $87,600 at auction on June 11, 2009. Tag Heuer continues to promote its Monaco range with McQueen’s image.
From 2009, Triumph Motorcycles Ltd, licensed by his estate, marketed a line of clothing inspired by Steve McQueen’s strong association with their brand, particularly his 1964 ISDT participation.
Year Film
1953 Girl on the Run
1955 Goodyear Playhouse

1956 The United States Steel Hour

1956 Somebody Up There Likes Me

1957 Studio One in Hollywood

1957 West Point

1957 The 20th Century-Fox Hour

1957 The Big Story

1958 Climax!

1958 Tales of Wells Fargo

1958 Trackdown
1958 Never Love a Stranger

1958 The Blob

1958 Wanted: Dead or Alive

1959 The Great St. Louis Bank Robbery

1959 Never So Few

1959 Alfred Hitchcock Presents

1960 Alfred Hitchcock Presents

1960 The Magnificent Seven

1961 The Honeymoon Machine

1962 Hell Is for Heroes

1962 The War Lover

1963 The Great Escape

1963 Soldier in the Rain

1963 Love with the Proper Stranger

1965 Baby the Rain Must Fall

1965 The Cincinnati Kid

1966 Nevada Smith

1966 The Sand Pebbles

1967 Think Twentieth
1968 The Thomas Crown Affair

1968 Bullitt

1969 The Reivers

1971 Le Mans

1971 On Any Sunday

1972 Junior Bonner

1972 The Getaway

1973 Bruce Lee: The Man and the Legend
1973 The Magnificent Rebel

1973 Papillon

1974 The Towering Inferno

1976 Dixie Dynamite
1978 An Enemy of the People

1980 Tom Horn

1980 The Hunter

Awards and honors
Academy Awards
• (1967) Nominated – Best Actor in a Leading Role in The Sand Pebbles
Golden Globe Awards
• (1964) Nominated – Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama in Love with the Proper Stranger
• (1967) Nominated – Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama in The Sand Pebbles
• (1970) Nominated – Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy in The Reivers
• (1974) Nominated – Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama in Papillon
Moscow International Film Festival
• (1963) – Won – Best Actor in The Great Escape

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TAG Heuer 1
TAG Heuer S.A. (English pronunciation: pron.: /ˌtæɡ ˈhɔɪ.ər/ TAG HOY-ər) designs, manufactures and markets luxury TAG Heuer-branded watches, chronographs and fashion accessories and markets Swiss luxury TAG Heuer-branded eyewear and mobile phones manufactured under license by other companies. TAG Heuer traces its roots to the 1860 foundation of Uhrenmanufaktur Heuer AG by Edouard Heuer in St-Imier, Switzerland. The company was purchased by TAG Group (Holdings) S.A. in 1985 and the Heuer brand became TAG Heuer. In 1999, TAG Group sold TAG Heuer to French luxury goods conglomerate LVMH Moët Hennessy • Louis Vuitton.
"Le Mans" Steve McQueen 1971 Solar Productions
Steve McQueen
Notable wearers and brand endorsers of TAG watches include Barack Obama, Lewis Hamilton, Leonardo DiCaprio, Tiger Woods, Brad Pitt and Shahrukh Khan.

TAG Heuer is based in Neuchâtel, Switzerland and is led by President and CEO John-Christophe Babin. Jack Heuer, the great grandson of the founder, is the Honorary Chairman. TAG Heuer maintains a watchmaking workshop inCornol, Switzerland and a watchmaking factory in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. The TAG Heuer slogan is “Swiss Avant-Garde Since 1860″.

Tag Heuer 2_chrono_18k_3
Heuer triple-date chronograph (circa 1955)

TAG Heuer Carrera automatic chronograph with tachymeter
1860 through 1880s
TAG Heuer traces its roots to 1860 when Edouard Heuer founded Uhrenmanufaktur Heuer AG (English: Heuer Watchmaking Inc.) in St-Imier, Switzerland.
Edouard Heuer patented his first chronograph in 1882 and in 1887 patented an ‘oscillating pinion’ still used by major watchmakers of mechanical chronographs.
In 1911, Heuer received a patent for the “Time of Trip”, the first dashboard chronograph. Designed for use in automobiles and aircraft, two large hands mounted from the center pinion indicate the time of day, as on a traditional clock. A small pair of hands, mounted at the top of the dial (12 o’clock position) indicates the duration of the trip (up to 12 hours). A top-mounted crown allows the user to set the time; a button mounted in that crown operates the start / stop / reset functions of the “duration of trip” counter.

Heuer introduced its first wrist chronograph in 1914. The crown was at the 12 o’clock position, as these first wrist chronographs were adapted from pocket chronographs. In 1916, Heuer introduced the “Micrograph”, the first stopwatch accurate to 1/100 of a second. This model was soon followed by the “Semikrograph”, a stopwatch that offered 1/50 of a second timing, as well as a split-second function (which allows the user to determine the interval between two contestants or events).
Tag Heuer Brad Pitt
Brad Pitt
1930s and 1940s
In 1933, Heuer introduced the “Autavia”, a dashboard timer used for automobiles and aviation (whence its name, from “AUTos” and “AVIAtion”). The companion “Hervue” was a clock that could run for eight days without being wound. Over the period from 1935 through the early 1940s, Heuer manufactured chronographs for pilots in the Luftwaffe, known as “Flieger” (pilots) chronographs. The earlier version featured a hinged-back case and one pusher (for start / stop / reset); the later version had a snap-back case and added a second pusher (for time-in and time-out). All these Flieger chronographs had two-registers, with a capacity of 30 minutes.”.
In the mid-1940s, Heuer expanded its line of chronographs to include both two- and three-register models, as well as a three-register chronograph that included a full calendar function (day / date / month). As the highest development of Heuer’s chronographs, these “triple calendar” chronographs were offered in stainless steel, 14 carat gold 18 and 22 carat gold cases. Dial colors were white, black or copper.
In the early 1950s, Heuer produced watches for the American retailer Abercrombie & Fitch. The “Seafarer” and “Auto-Graph” were unique chronographs produced by Heuer to be sold by Abercrombie & Fitch. The “Seafarers” had special dials—with blue, green and yellow patterns—that showed the high and low tides. This dial could also be used to track the phases of the moon. Heuer produced a version of the “Seafarer” for sale under the Heuer name, with this model called the “Mareographe”. The “Auto-Graph” was produced in 1953 and 1954, and featured a tachymeter scale on the dial and a hand that could be preset to a specific point on the scale. This allowed a rally driver or navigator to determine whether the car was achieving the desired pace, over a measured mile. Advertisements and literature also pointed out that this hand could be rotated to count golf scores or other events.
Tag Heuer dicaprio
Leonardo DiCaprio
Auto dashboard timers
From 1911, Heuer manufactured timepieces to be mounted on the dashboards of automobiles, aircraft and boats. These clocks and timers included a variety of models, designed to address specific needs of racers and rallyists. In 1958, Heuer introduced a new line of dashboard timepieces, which included the Master Time (8-day clock), the Monte Carlo (12-hour stopwatch), the Super Autavia (full chronograph), Sebring (60-minute, split-second timer) and Auto-Rallye (60-minute stopwatch). Heuer continued to manufacture these dashboard timepieces into the 1980s, at which time they were discontinued. Heuer also introduced timing devices for ski and motor racing events, including Formula One.
tag Heuer 4_Autavia_1962

Heuer Autavia (1962)

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Heuer Carrera (1963)
From the 1950s to the 1970s, Heuers were popular watches among automobile racers, both professionals and amateurs. Heuer was a leading producer of stopwatches and timing equipment, based on the volume of its sales, so it was only natural that racers, their crews and event sponsors began to wear Heuer’s chronographs. Special versions of Heuer chronographs were produced with logos of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, as well as the names or logos of racing teams or sponsors (for example, Shelby Cobra, MG and Champion Sparkplugs).
In 1962, Heuer became the first Swiss watchmaker in space. John Glenn wore a Heuer stopwatch when he piloted the Mercury Atlas 6 spacecraft on the first US manned space flight to orbit the earth. This stopwatch was the back-up clock for the mission and was started manually by Glenn 20 seconds into the flight. It is currently on display at the San Diego Air and Space Museum.
The Autavia chronograph was introduced in 1962 and featured a rotating bezel, marked in either hours, minutes, decimal minutes (1/100th minute increments) or with a tachymeter scale. All manual-wind Autavias from the 1960s had a black dial, with white registers. Early cases had a screw-back and later models (from and after 1968) had snap-backs. The “Autavia” name had previously been used on Heuer’s dashboard timers (described above).
The Carrera chronograph, designed by Jack Heuer, was introduced in 1963. The Carrera had a very simple design, with only the registers and applied markers on the dial. The fixed inner bezel is divided into 1/5 second increments. The 1960s Carreras were available with a variety of dials, including all-white, all-black, white registers on a black dial, and black registers on a black dial. A three-register, triple calendar version of the Carrera was introduced around 1968.
Most of Heuer chronographs from this period—including the Autavias and Carreras—used movements manufactured by Valjoux, including the Valjoux 72 movement (for a 12-hour chronograph) and the Valjoux 92 movement (for a 30-minute or 45-minute chronograph). The Valjoux 72 movement utilized a ‘tri-compax’ design, with three registers on the dial—one register for the chronograph hours (at the bottom), one register for the chronograph minutes (at the right), and a third register for a continuously running second hand (at the left). The second hand for the chronograph was mounted on the center pinion, along with the time-of-day hands.
Heuer acquired the “Leonidas” brand in the early 1960s, with the combined company marketing watches under the “Heuer-Leonidas” name. One of the designs that Heuer acquired from Leonidas was the “Bundeswehr” chronograph, used by the German air force. These “BWs” feature a ‘fly-back’ mechanism, so that when the chronograph is reset to zero, it immediately begins running again, to time the next segment or event.
World’s first automatic chronographs
Commencing in the mid-1960s, Heuer was part of a partnership (with Breitling and Hamilton) that sought to introduce the world’s first automatic chronograph. Seiko (a Japanese watch manufacturer) and Zenith (a Swiss watch manufacturer) were also seeking to be the first to offer these chronographs. These projects were conducted in secret, as none of the competitors wanted the other companies to be aware of their efforts. Most agree that the Heuer-Breitling venture was first to introduce their new line of automatic chronographs to the world wide market, with Heuer-Breitling-Hamilton holding lavish press conferences in Geneva and New York, on 3 March 1969, to show their new lines of chronographs.

TAG Heuer 6_Monaco_40th_Anniversary_re-edition
The Heuer Monaco 40th Anniversary re-edition with Calibre 11 (2009) is a limited edition, contemporary replica of the original 1969 Heuer Monaco.
Heuer’s first automatic chronographs were the Autavia, Carrera and Monaco. These were powered by the Cal 11 and Cal 12 movements (12-hour chronograph);

Cal 14 movement (12-hour chronograph and additional hand for GMT / second time-zone) and the Cal 15 movement (30-minute chronograph). Unusually, the winding crown was on the left, with the pushers for the chronograph on the right. The earliest of Heuer’s Cal 11 chronographs (from 1969) were named “Chrono-Matic”. In the early 1970s, Heuer expanded its line of automatic chronographs to include the Daytona, Montreal, Silverstone, Calculator, Monza and Jarama models, all of them powered by the Caliber 11 movement.
tag heuer steve McQueen
Several of the automatic Heuer chronographs powered by the Caliber 11 series of movements are associated with automobile racing and specific drivers. Steve McQueen wore a blue Monaco in the 1971 movie, Le Mans (with this model now referred to as the “McQueen Monaco”) and Swiss Formula One star Jo Siffert customarily wore a white-dialed Autavia with black registers. In 1974, Heuer produced a special version of the black-dialed Autavia that was offered by the Viceroy cigarette company, in a special promotion for $88. The Viceroy advertisements for this promotion featured racer Parnelli Jones, this version of the Autavia got to be called the “Viceroy”.
In 1975, Heuer introduced the Chronosplit, a digital chronograph with dual LED and LCD displays. Later versions featured two LCD displays.
Heuer began using the Valjoux 7750 movement in its automatic chronographs, with the Kentucky and Pasadena models (both introduced in 1977). The Valjoux 7750 movement was a three-register chronograph (with seconds, minutes and hours), that also offered day / date windows.

In the mid-1970s, Heuer introduced a series of chronographs powered by the Lemania 5100 movement. The Lemania 5100 movements have the minute hand for the chronograph on the center pinion (rather than on a smaller register), greatly improving legibility. The Lemania 5100 movement is considered very rugged and has been used in a variety of chronographs issued to military pilots. There are ten models of Heuer chronographs powered by the Lemania 5100—Reference 510.500 (stainless steel), 510.501 (black coated), 510.502 (olive drab coated), 510.503 (pewter coated), 510.511 (Carrera dialed acrylic crystal PVD finish), 510.523 (Carrera dialed acrylic crystal stainless steel), as well as models with the names Silverstone (steel case with black dial) and Cortina (steel case with blue dial); the Reference 510.543 was made for the A.M.I. (Italian Air Force) and a special edition (with no reference number marked on the case) was made for AudiSport.
TAG Heuer was formed in 1985 when TAG (Techniques d’Avant Garde), manufacturers of high-tech items such as ceramic turbochargers for Formula One cars, acquired Heuer.
On 13 September 1999 TAG Heuer accepted a bid from LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton S.A. of SwFr1.15 billion (£452.15 million) (US$739 million) contingent upon a transfer of 50.1% of stocks.
Tag Heuer jeff_gordon_CV2010.BA0786
Jeff Gordon
In 2013, TAG Heuer celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Carrera, the racing-inspired Chronograph that forms a key part of the TAG Heuer range today. There have been 10 generations of Carrera since its introduction, and models launched in every decade since 1963.


tag heuer 7
2008 Tag Heuer CV2010 Carrera. (Cardiff, UK, Nov 2012)

TAG Heuer 8_Grand_Carrera_watch
TAG Heuer Grand Carrera RS
TAG Heuer’s current lines include Formula One, Aquaracer, Link, Carrera, Monaco and Grand Carrera.
TAG Heuer, in keeping with its image as a luxury brand with an innovative spirit, has long standing links with the world of sport and Hollywood. TAG Heuer has been the official timekeeper of the three Summer Olympic Games of the 1920s, the Skiing World Championships, the Formula One World Championships and has developed a watch for the McLaren F1 team. The brand has also had a long list of sports and Hollywood ambassadors.

Some of the more recently announced models include the Monaco V4 (the movement of which is driven by belts rather than gears); the Carrera Calibre 360 (the first mechanical wrist chronograph to measure and display time to 1/100 of a second ) and the Monaco 69 (with both a digital chronograph accurate to a millisecond and a traditional mechanical movement, with a hinged mechanism allowing wearers to flip the watch between its two separate dials).
London-based Christoph Behling has been the lead designer for TAG Heuer since 2004. The collaboration has resulted in some of the brand’s most celebrated pieces including the world’s fastest chronograph, the Mikrogirder 1/2000th, launched in 2012.
tag heuer Maria-Sharapova-Tag-Heuer-model
In January 2011 TAG Heuer announced the new Carrera Mikrograph, the first TAG Heuer to use the in-house Mikrograph movement, which is accurate to 1/100 of a second. In addition to that, TAG Heuer has also released the limited edition Carrera MP4-12C to commemorate the launch of the McLaren MP4-12C supercar. TAG Heuer has been a partner of the McLaren F1 team for over 26 years now.

At the Basel 2011 show in March 2011, TAG Heuer announced the Mikrotimer Flying 1000, a concept mechanical watch capable of accuracy of 1/1000 of a second – ten times faster than the Mikrograph.
This mark was then bettered by TAG Heuer in January 2012 with the Mikrogirder model, which was precise to 5/10,000ths of a second.[
Tag heuer 9 eyeglasses
Moretz, France based Groupe Logo manufactures TAG Heuer-
tag heuer 11
Tag heuer 10 glassesbranded eyewear under a license acquired in 2002.
Mobile phones
tag heuer 12_meridiist1_5784_1333
Paris, France based ModeLabs Group manufactures TAG Heuer-branded mobile phone under license.

tag heuer 13-meridiist-phones1_ezVMc_65
ModeLabs acquired the license in late 2007 and marketed the first TAG Heuer branded mobile phone in late 2008.
tag heuer 14_meridiist_mobile_phone
Fashion accessories
TAG Heuer markets a line of men’s accessories including
tag heuer 17 wallet
Tag heuer 23 belt
tag heuer 16 bags
Tag Heyer 20-WalletsBags
tag heuer 21 Jackets
Tag Heuer 22 jacket
Tag Heuer 15 braclet
tag heuer 18 cuflinks
Brand Endorsements
Over the years Tag has engaged numerous notable celebrities in its brand marketing campaign.
• Tiger Woods
• Leonardo DiCaprio
• Brad Pitt
• Shah Rukh Khan
• Chen Daoming
• Jeff Gordon
• Maria Sharapova
• Juan Pablo Montoya
• Kimi Raikkonen
tag heuer uma-thurman-tag-heuer
• Uma Thurman
• Fernando Alonso
Tag Heuer Maria Sharapova Lewis Hamilton for Tag Heuer Photoshoot 2012-000
• Lewis Hamilton

tag heuer cameron-diaz-tag-heuer-623
• Cameron Diaz
• Steve McQueen

In 2007 TAG Heuer won the iF product design award for its Monaco Calibre 360 LS Concept Chronograph. The award was given away by the International Forum Design Hannover GmbH, held in Hanover, Germany. The watch received the award in the Leisure/Lifestyle category. It was chosen among more than 2,200 timepieces presented by watchmakers from 35 countries. TAG Heuer received the iF product design award for the second time in two years. In 2006 another TAG Heuer watch, entitled Professional Golf Watch, won in the same Leisure/Lifestyle category. The design of the Professional Golf Watch was developed with Tiger Woods.
In 2010 The Carrera 1887 won La Petite Aiguille award (“the small hand” for watches retailing for less than CHF5,000) at the Grand Prix d’Horlogerie de Genève.

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Grace by Laura Story

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santina 9a

santina 10

santina 11

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ملف خاص.. 100 شهيد فى رقبة مرسى Special report 100 deaths during Morsi’s 7 months rule. President Obama you got the Egyptians in this mess get them out

أعد الملف: أحمد سعيد
Morsi Ugly
“من قتل نفسا بغير نفس أو فسادا فى الأرض فكأنما قتل الناس جميعا”.. تلك الأيه الكريمة تحمل الكثير من الدلالات فى طياتها وهى الأكثر تجسيدا لما يحدث الأن فى عهد الرئيس محمد مرسى منذ تولية الحكم من عنف وإراقه للدماء وإنتهاك للأدمية، فلم يكن عهد الرئيس السابق مبارك والمجلس العسكرى هو نهاية عصور إراقه دماء الأبرياء والمتظاهرين السلميين، بل جاء عصر الرئيس مرسى ليضيف مزيدا من الدماء لينافس سابقيه ممن تولوا الحكم فى أعداد الشهداء

“100 شهيد فى عهد الرئيس مرسى” .. هذه هى المفاجأة الصادمة، التى كشفت عنها الإحصائية النهائية الصادرة من دار التشريح التابعة لمصلحة الطب الشرعى، حول إجمالى أعداد الشهداء، الذين سقطوا فى عهد الرئيس محمد مرسى فى مختلف الأحداث والمحافظات منذ توليه الحكم فى يوليو 2012 حتى الأن أى بالتحديد ما يقرب من 8 أشهر، إحتجاجا على سياساته وممارساته التى ينتهجها منذ تقلده المنصب رسميا، ورغم صدمة تلك الإحصائية والبيانات المفزعه التى تحويها فى طياتها وتكشفها للرأى العام إلا أنها تؤكد للجميع إستمرار أله القمع والقتل والإبادة بنفس الطرق التى كان ينتهجها النظام البائد ولكن تلك المرة بإسم الدين و”بما لا يخالف شرع الله”، مثل النظام السابق الذى كان يستخدم الأساليب القمعية والدموية لإثناء معارضيه وتكميم أفواههم وتكبيل أياديهم وإخراس ألسنتهم وغيرها من الوسائل الديكتاتوريه، فمع مرور كل 48 ساعة يسقط شهيد يضيق الطوق أكثر فأكثر على رقبة الرئيس ومن فى الحكم بشكل يشير إلى قسوة البيانات التى تم الكشف عنها.

فلم يعد الرقم “100″ هو رقم الحظ للرئيس الذى يحبذه بل بات كابوسا يراوده فى كل ليلة، ويبدو أن الرئيس محمد مرسى لا يعلم وهو جالس على كرسيه فى القصر الرئيس أن مع مرور يومان كاملين يسقط شهيد فى عهده متخطيا كافه الأرقام والإحصائيات التى صنعها الفراعنه الذين سبقوه، فلم يتورع الرئيس منذ تولية الحكم عن إستخدام ممارسات سابقيه، بل إنتهج سياسة العنف والقمع والقتل ليكمل بها مسيرة من سبقه و ليستخدمها أيضا فى قمع معارضية ومناهضية ومن يعترضون على قراراته وأحكامه ولكن تحت ستار الدين

“الدستور الأصلي” حصلت على أحدث وأخطر إحصائية لكافة أعداد الشهداء والقتلى فى عهد الرئيس محمد مرسى بالأرقام والأسماء والبيانات، من الكشوف النهائية المدرجة بدار التشريح ممن تم تشريحهم بالفعل حتى الأن، حيث بلغ إجمالى عدد الشهداء فى عهد الرئيس منذ توليه الحكم “100 شهيدا” حتى الأن، فى أحداث ذكرى محمد محمود الأولى نحو 3 شهداء كان فى مقدمتهم الشهيد جابر صلاح جابر الشهير بـ”جيكا” وهو أول شهيد يسقط فى عهد الرئيس مرسى ليبدأ الرئيس فى حصد الأرواح الأبرياء، ثم يأتى حادث رفح الأرهابى وسقوط نحو 16 شهيدا فى تلك الأحداث برصاص الغدر وقتها، ثم يأتى حادث إستشهاد 10 مصريين غرقى فى أحداث الهجرة غير الشرعية أمام السواحل الليبية تم تشريحهم ولكنهم مجهولى الهوية ولم يستدل على هويتهم، ثم أحداث الإتحادية التى نشبت بين مؤيدى الرئيس مرسى ومعارضية بسبب قرارات الإعلان الدستورى، التى أعلنها الرئيس وتسببت فى إشتباكات دموية بين الجانبين عند محيط قصر الإتحادية ونتج عنها سقوط نحو 11 شهيدا من بينهم الشهيد الصحفى الحسينى أبو ضيف، ثم تأتى أحداث مجزرة بورسعيد “الثانية” عقب النطق بالحكم فى القضية بإحاله 21 متهما لفضيله المفتى ليسقط خلالها نحو 38 شهيدا بينهم مجهول الهوية وضابط شرطة ومجند أمن مركزى خلال الأحداث، ثم تأتى أحداث التحرير والإتحادية الأخيرة، لتؤكد إستمرار أله القمع والقتل ولتضيف لقائمة الرئيس شهداء جدد بسقوط 8 شهداء بينهم الجندى “خالد سعيد الجديد”، ولم تتوقف إنجازات الرئيس فى حصد الدماء عند ذلك الحد بل بلغت مداها ليسقط نحو 11 شهيدا فى السويس والإسماعيلية بينهم 10 بالسويس وواحده فقط فى الإسماعيلية، وكذلك سقوط نحو 3 شهداء فى أحداث إشتباكات بعض المحافظات

تلك هى الإحصائيات الرسمية الصادرة من الطب الشرعى لمن تم تشريحهم بالفعل خلال الأحداث التى شهدها عهد الرئيس مرسى، ولكن لا يزال عداد الدماء مستمرا فى حصد مزيدا من الأرواح ولا تزال الدماء تسيل وتراق كالفيضان ولا يزال هناك مفقودين ومجهولين سقطوا فى عهد الرئيس لا يعلم الجميع عنهم شيئا ولكن الأرقام الرسمية لاتكذب وتضع طوقا حول رقبة الرئيس مرسى بمن سقطوا فى عهد إحتجاجا عليه.


شهداء عصرالرئيس مرسى منذ تولية الحكم فى يوليو 2012 حتى الأن بالأسماء والأرقام

حصلت “الدستور الأصلي” على أحدث إحصائية سرية صادرة من دار التشريح التابع لمصلحة الطب الشرعى، بالأعداد الكاملة للشهداء والقتلى والحالة الإصابية لهم وسبب الوفاه فى مختلف الأحداث بدءا منذ تولى الرئيس محمد مرسى الحكم فى يولية 2012 حتى الأن – وفقا للكشوف المدرجة بدار التشريح، ممن تم تشريحهم بالفعل بمعرفة الأطباء الشرعيين
Morsi death list 4
حيث بلغ إجمالى أعداد الشهداء فى أحداث ذكرى محمد محمود الأولى، فى الفترة ما بين 26 نوفمبر حتى 2 ديسمبر 2012 – والتى نشبت على خلفية الإحتجاجات بسبب الإعلان الدستورى الذى أصدره الرئيس مرسى، ونتج عنه العديد من الإشتباكات الدامية بين المتظاهرين وقوات الأمن إعتراضا على صدوره -نحو 3 شهداء، وفقا للكشوف المدرجة بدارالتشريح وقضايا جنح قصر النيل تحت عنوان “أحداث قرارات مرسى”، وهم كالتالى:

morsi death list 3

فيما بلغ إجمالى أعداد شهداء الجنود المصريين خلال حادث رفح الإجرامى – خلال الهجوم الذى تعرضوا إليه وراح ضحيته نحو 16 جندى من الجنود المصريين، ولكن لم يتم تشريحهم فى دار التشريح التابع لمصلحة الطب الشرعى وأسمائهم وتم فحص الجناة والمنفذين فقط كالتالى:

morsi death list 2

وبلغ إجمالى أعداد الشهداء فى أحداث الهجرة غير الشرعية للمصريين أمام السواحل الليبية فى الفترة من 27 أغسطس حتى 31 أغسطس 2012، نحو 10 شهداء مجهولى الهوية لم يستدل على هويتهم حتى الأن، تم تشريحهم بمعرفة الأطباء الشرعيين وتم إدراجهم فى كشوف دار التشريح تحت مسمى “مجهولى الهوية – نيابة السيدة زينب”

Morsi death list 5

>>فيما بلغ إجمالى أعداد الشهداء فى أحداث الإتحادية، فى الفترة من 6 ديسمبر حتى 12 ديسمبر2012 ،نحو 11 شهيدا وتم تشريحهم بمعرفة نيابة مصر الجديدة، والتى نشبت على خلفية الإعتراض على الإعلان الدستورى ونتج عنها حدوث إشتباكات دامية بين المؤيدين للرئيس محمد مرسى وجماعته والمعارضين له ولقراراته وأطلق عليها “أحداث الإتحادية الدامية”.

بينما وصل أعداد شهداء أحداث مجزرة بورسعيد الثانية، وفقا للكشوف المدرجة ممن تم تشريحهم فى أحداث بورسعيد “الثانية” التى نشبت بين أهالى بورسعيد والأمن، عقب النطق بالحكم بإحاله 21 متهما فى قضية المجزرة لفضيلة المفتى نحو 38 شهيدا، بينهم ظابط ومجند وشهيد مجهول الهوية فقط، فى الفترة من 26 يناير حتى 28 يناير2013

وكشفت الإحصائية، أن جميع الشهداء ذكور بينهم 36 مدنيا وشرطيان وأحدهم مجهول الهوية فقط والباقى معلوم، وكافة الإصابات نتيجة مقذوفات نارية مفردة لأعيرة نارية

morsi death list a
دون إصابة واحدة إشتباه فى إختناق بالغاز المسيل للدموع، وتم إستخراج 7 مقذوفات نارية مستقرة عيار7.62 مللى ف39 من بعض الجثامين.

وعن أحداث التحرير والإتحادية الأخيرة، التى نشبت بين قوات الأمن والمتظاهرين إعتراضا على سياسات الرئيس محمد مرسى وجماعته وللمطالبه بإسقاطهم ورحيلهم عن السلطة، بلغ إجمالى الشهداء فى تلك الأحداث فى الفترة ما بين من 29 يناير حتى 4 فبراير 2013 ، نحو 8 شهداء بينهم مجهول الهوية، وفقا لما تم إدراجه رسميا فى كشوف دار التشريح وهم كالتالى:

morsi the devil
morsi 's devil
El Shater The behind the scenes President

فيما بلغ إجمالى شهداء السويس والإسماعيلية فى الفترة من 25 يناير 2013 حتى الأن، ممن تم تشريحهم وإدراج أسمائهم بالكشوف نحو 11 شهيدا، بينهم 10 من السويس وواحده فقط من الإسماعيلية، وطبقا للكشوف فإنه تبين من التشريح أن جميع الضحايا ذكور منهم 10 مدنيون وظابط واحد فقط، والفئه العمرية من “10 إلى 20 عاما” 3 ومن “20 إلى 30 عاما” 6 ومن “30 إلى 40 عاما” 2، وجميعهم مسلمون، ونوع الإصابات المسببة للوفاه هى مقذوف نارى مفرد، وتم إستخراج 3 مقذوفات نارية مستقرة عيار”7.62 مللى ف39″

فيما وصل إجمالى عدد الشهداء فى أحداث الإشتباكات فى محافظات الجمهورية المختلفة فى عهد الرئيس محمد مرسى نحو 3 شهداء


شهداء عصر مبارك والمجلس العسكرى منذ يناير2011 حتى فبراير
279 شهيدا جميعهم من الذكور .. بينهم 23 قبطيا .. وعسكرى واحد فقط

بينما بالمقارنه كشفت البيانات الصادرة من دار التشريح عن أعداد الشهداء خلال فترة تولى الرئيس السابق مبارك والمجلس العسكرى فى مختلف الأحداث بدءا من ثورة يناير و ماسبيرو و محمد محمود و مجلس الوزراء ومجزرة بورسعيد بلوغهم نحو 279 شهيدا.

حيث بلغ إجمالى شهداء 25 يناير 2011 – ممن تم تشريحهم بدار التشريح بمشرحة زينهم،نحو 152 شهيدا جميعهم من الذكور،تتراوح أعمارهم بدءا من العقد الثانى حتى العقد السادس، تنوعت الإصابات ما بين نارية ورشية وإختناق بالغاز وحالة مرضية وإشتباه بإختناق ونارية خرطوش وإصابات بالرأس وإسفكسيا الخنق

بينما بلغ إجمالى شهداء أحداث ماسبيرو، التى حدثت فى 10أكتوبر 2011، نحو 24 شهيدا، جميعهم من الذكور،من بينهم 23 مدنيا وعسكرى واحد فقط،وبينهم 23 قبطيا ومسلم واحد فقط،وتنوعت الإصابات ما بين 8 بعيار نارى و13 بإصابات هرسية و1 بإصابة رضية وقطعية بالرأس وأخر بإصابة رضية قطعية بالعنق وأخر بإصابة رضية بالرأس

فيما بلغ إجمالى ضحايا وشهداء أحداث محمود محمود الأولى، التى وقعت فى نوفمبر2011، نحو 43 شهيدا، جميعهم من الذكور، بينهم43 مدنيا مسلما، وتنوعت الإصابات ما بين 33 حالة وفاة بعيار نارى وحالة واحدة إصابة هرسية و6 بإشتباه بإختناق بالغاز و3 إصابة رضية بالرأس.

بينما وصل عدد شهداء، أحداث مجلس الوزراء فى ديسمبر2011، نحو 18 شهيد، جميعهم من الذكور ومدنيون، وتنوعت إصابتهم ما بين 17 شهيدا بطلق نارى وشهيد واحد فقط بإصابة رضية بالرأس وكسور بالجمجمة.

فيما بلغ إجمالى ضحايا شهداء مجزرة أحداث مجزرة بورسعيد الدامية التى وقعت فى 1فبراير2012 – ممن تم تشريحهم فى دار التشريح بمشرحة زينهم، نحو 42 شهيدا، بينهم 41 شهيدا معلوم الهوية وشهيد واحد فقط مجهول الهوية، تم إجراء كشف ظاهرى لنحو 40 شهيدا وتشريح لجثمان واحد فقط من قرار نيابة وأخر قرار نيابة عامة، وجميعهم من الذكور، وتتراوح اعمارهم ما بين العقد الثانى والثالث، وتنوعت الحالة الإصابية لديهم ما بين إختناق بإعقائة حركات الصدر التنفسية وإصابات رضية بالرأس ونزيف على سطح المخ وعلامات تشير لكسر بقاع الجمجمة وإشتباه بنزيف دماغى.


دفاتر الدم تكتب حكايات وقصص أول شهيد فى عهد مرسى

جيكا.. أول شهداء عصرالرئيس

جابر صلاح جابر الشهير بـ”جيكا” : أول شهيد فى عصر مرسى سقط فى أحداث الذكرى الأولى لأحداث محمد محمود ويبلغ من العمر 17 عاما، وإستشهد خلال الإشتباكات بين قوات الأمن والمتظاهرين إثر إصابته بخمس رشات بللى إخترقت جسده

أبوالعلا.. أول شهيد لرغيف الخبز

“أحمد عبد الفتاح أبو العلا” أول شهيد للخبز فى عهد مرسى وإستشهد أثناء مشاجرة على رغيف الخبز بالإسكندرية، خلال مشاده نشبت بين 4 عمال بمخبز بلدي وبين عامل وعاطل، مما أدى لوفاة أحد عمال المخبز، ويعد هذا أول شهيد للخبز في عهد الرئيس مرسي
أبوضيف .. أول شهيد للصحافة

الحسينى أبوضيف أول شهيد صحفى، أصيب أثناء تغطيته أحداث المظاهرات أمام قصرالاتحادية يوم 6 ديسمبر الماضى ونقل إلى مستشفى الزهراء الجامعي بالعباسية، وقال تقرير الطب الشرعى عنه أئنذاك، أنه توفى برصاص حى وليس خرطوش وأقيمت له جنازة شعبية حاشدة من أمام نقابة الصحفيين

“بائع البطاطا” .. أول طفل شهيد بالخطأ

الطفل عمر صلاح عمران “بائع البطاطا” – البالغ من العمر15 عاما – أول شهيد يسقط بالخطأ برصاص أحد أفراد الأمن المركزى فى أحداث إشتباكات محيط السفارة الأمريكية، ومن مفارقات القدر أن يكون من الحظ السئ لهذا الشهيد أن ينسى أثناء خروج الجنازة الشعبية الحاشدة من مشرحة زينهم بالسيدة زينب إلى مسجد عمر مكرم بالتحريرعلى كلامن الشهيد محمد الجندى وعمرو سعد عبد الرحيم، كما أن وفاته كانت من أندًر الحالات التى تعرض على الطب الشرعى بسبب إصابته بمقذوف نارى أحدث فتحة دخول دون خروج المقذوف أوالعثور عليه وهو ما إعتبره الاطباء الشرعيين أحد أكثر الحالات ندره التى عرضت على الطب الشرعى.

“الجندى”.. أول شهيد للتعذيب

محمد نبيل عبد العزيز الجندى أو “خالد سعيد الجديد”، كما يطلق عليه حاليا، الشهيد الذى دار حوله حالة من الجدل الواسع، حول أسباب وملابسات مقتله وما إذا كان مقتله نتيجه تصادم سيارة كما قال الطب الشرعى فى تقاريره النهائية أم نتيجه تعذيب كما روى أفراد من التيار الشعبى وأفراد أسرته، ورغم صدور التقرير النهائى حول أن أسباب الوفاه نتيجة تصادم إلا أن الشكوك تحيط بالطب الشرعى حول ملابسات الوفاه وكيفية مقتله والظروف التى سقط خلالها المجنى عليه شهيدا، ليفتح الباب من جديد لقضية خالد سعيد مرة أخرى.


التحليل النفسى:.

المهدى:حاجز الخوف إنكسر بعد الثورة .. والمعضله تكمن بين شباب ثائر و رئيس الإدراك بينهما سلبيا

“100″ شهيدا حتى الأن فى 8 أشهر هى طول حكم الرئيس مرسى منذ تقلد المنصب رسميا،كانت دافعا لتسأل “الدستور الأصلي” خبراء علم النفس عن نفسية من فى الحكم وأسباب تزايد معدلات العنف والدماء فى عهد الرئيس مرسى ولماذا لم تتوقف الدماء حتى الأن؟.

الدكتور محمد المهدى أستاذ علم النفس، أكد أن عصر الرئيس محمد مرسى يختلف كثيرا عن عصر مبارك، نظرا لأن الغضب فى عهد الرئيس السابق مبارك كان مكتوما بسبب القبضة الأمنية والخوف مما تسبب فى حدوث حالة من السلبية، ولكن بعد الثورة إنكسر حاجز الخوف وأصبح الكل يطالب بحقه بصفه مباشرة فتحول الخوف إلى غضب ثم إلى عنف مباشر، مؤكدا أن المعضله الحقيقية تكمن فى وجود وجهتين نظر متضادتين والإدراك بينهما سلبيا للغاية بين شباب ثائر وبين سلطة حاكمة، وكل المسارات للحوار مغلقه بينهما وحينما يصبح الحوار غير مجدى يتحول إلى إحباط وهى معادلة نفسية متكررة، مشيرا أن كل طرف أصبح لا يرى سوى نفسه ويرى الأخر شيطانا مما يجعل هناك حاجز قائم يحول بين الطرفين، مضيفا أن الرئيس مرسى يرتكز على جماعة وتيار له وجود فى الشارع ولا يتخيل عاقل أن يتخلى عن السلطة بمنتهى السهوله ، والعنف المتكرر يتسبب فى حدوث أزمة طوال الوقت بسبب غياب الحوار

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Jacques Lacan

lacan 4
Jacques Marie Émile Lacan (French: [ʒak lakɑ̃]; April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist who made prominent contributions to psychoanalysis and philosophy, and has been called “the most controversial psycho-analyst since Freud”. Lacan’s post-structuralist theory rejected the belief that reality can be captured in language.
Giving yearly seminars in Paris from 1953 to 1981, Lacan influenced France’s intellectuals in the 1960s and the 1970s, especially the post-structuralist philosophers. His interdisciplinary work was as a “self-proclaimed Freudian….’It is up to you to be Lacanians if you wish. I am a Freudian’”;[4] and featured the unconscious, the castration complex, the ego, identification, and language as subjective perception. His ideas have had a significant impact on critical theory, literary theory, 20th-century French philosophy,sociology, feminist theory, film theory and clinical psychoanalysis.
Lacan Freud-Museum
Freud Museum
Early life
Lacan was born in Paris, the eldest of Emilie and Alfred Lacan’s three children. His father was a successful soap and oils salesman. His mother was ardently Catholic—his younger brother went to a monastery in 1929 and Lacan attended the Jesuit Collège Stanislas. During the early 1920s, Lacan attended right-wing Action Française political meetings, of which he would later be highly critical, and met the founder, Charles Maurras. By the mid-1920s, Lacan had become dissatisfied with religion and quarrelled with his family over it.
In 1920, on being rejected as too thin for military service, he entered medical school and, in 1926, specialised in psychiatry at the Sainte-Anne Hospital in Paris. He was especially interested in the philosophies of Karl Jaspers and Martin Heidegger and attended the seminars about Hegel given by Alexandre Kojève.
In 1931 Lacan became a licensed forensic psychiatrist. In 1932 he was awarded the Doctorat d’état for his thesis On Paranoiac Psychosis in its Relations to the Personality (De la Psychose paranoïaque dans ses rapports avec la personnalité suivi de Premiers écrits sur la paranoïa. Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1975.) It had a limited reception in the ’30s because it was not published until four decades later, but it did find acclaim especially by surrealist artists. Also in 1932, Lacan translated Freud’s 1922 text, “Über einige neurotische Mechanismen bei Eifersucht, Paranoia und Homosexualität” as “De quelques mécanismes névrotiques dans la jalousie, la paranoïa et l’homosexualité”. It was published in the Revue française de psychanalyse. In Autumn of that same year, Lacan began his training analysis with Rudolph Lowenstein, which was to last until 1938.
Two years later, Lacan was elected to the Société psychanalytique de Paris. In January 1934, he married Marie-Louise Blondin and they had their first child, a daughter called Caroline. Their second child, a son named Thibaut, was born in August 1939.
In 1936, Lacan presented his first analytic report at the Congress of the International Psychoanalytical Association in Marienbad on the “Mirror Phase”. The congress chairman, Ernest Jones, terminated the lecture before its conclusion, since he was unwilling to extend Lacan’s stated presentation time. Insulted, Lacan left the congress to witness the Berlin Olympic Games. Unfortunately, no copy of the original lecture remains.
Lacan was an active intellectual of the inter-war period—he associated with André Breton, Georges Bataille, Salvador Dalí, and Pablo Picasso. He attended the mouvement Psyché that Maryse Choisy founded. He published in the Surrealist journal Minotaure and attended the first public reading of James Joyce’s Ulysses. “[Lacan's] interest in surrealism predated his interest in psychoanalysis,” Dylan Evans explains, speculating that “perhaps Lacan never really abandoned his early surrealist sympathies, its neo-Romantic view of madness as ‘convulsive beauty’, its celebration of irrationality, and its hostility to the scientist who murders nature by dissecting it”. Others would agree that “the importance of surrealism can hardly be over-stated… to the young Lacan… [who] also shared the surrealists’ taste for scandal and provocation, and viewed provocation as an important element in psycho-analysis itself”.
The Société Psychoanalytique de Paris (SPP) was disbanded due to Nazi Germany’s occupation of France in 1940. Lacan was called up to serve in the French army at the Val-de-Grâce military hospital in Paris, where he spent the duration of the war. His third child, Sibylle, was born in 1940.
The following year, Lacan fathered a child, Judith (who kept the name Bataille), with Sylvia Bataille (née Maklès), the estranged wife of his friend Georges Bataille. There are contradictory accounts of his romantic life with Sylvia in southern France during the war. The official record shows only that Marie-Louise requested divorce after Judith’s birth and that Lacan married Sylvia in 1953.
After the war, the SPP recommenced their meetings. Lacan visited England for a five-week study trip, where he met the English analystsWilfred Bion and John Rickman. Bion’s analytic work with groups influenced Lacan, contributing to his own subsequent emphasis on study groups as a structure within which to advance theoretical work in psychoanalysis. In 1949, Lacan presented a new paper on themirror stage to the sixteenth IPA congress in Zurich.
In 1951, Lacan started to hold a private weekly seminar in Paris, in which he urged what he described as “a return to Freud” that would concentrate on the linguistic nature of psychological symptomatology. Becoming public in 1953, Lacan’s twenty-seven year long seminar was highly influential in Parisian cultural life, as well as in psychoanalytic theory and clinical practice.
In 1953, after a disagreement over the variable-length session, Lacan and many of his colleagues left the Société Parisienne de Psychanalyse to form a new group, the Société Française de Psychanalyse (SFP). One consequence of this was to deprive the new group of membership within the International Psychoanalytical Association.
Encouraged by the reception of “the return to Freud” and of his report “The Function and Field of Speech and Language in Psychoanalysis,” Lacan began to re-read Freud’s works in relation to contemporary philosophy, linguistics, ethnology, biology, andtopology. From 1953 to 1964 at the Sainte-Anne Hospital, he held his Seminars and presented case histories of patients. During this period he wrote the texts that are found in the collection Écrits, which was first published in 1966. In his seventh Seminar “The Ethics of Psychoanalysis” (1959–60), Lacan defined the ethical foundations of psychoanalysis and presented his “ethics for our time”—one that would, in the words of Freud, prove to be equal to the tragedy of modern man and to the “discontent of civilization.” At the roots of the ethics is desire: analysis’ only promise is austere, it is the entrance-into-the-I (in French a play on words between l’entrée en je and l’entrée en jeu). “I must come to the place where the id was,” where the analysand discovers, in its absolute nakedness, the truth of his desire. The end of psychoanalysis entails “the purification of desire.” This text formed the foundation of Lacan’s work for the subsequent years He defended three assertions: that psychoanalysis must have a scientific status; that Freudian ideas have radically changed the concepts of subject, of knowledge, and of desire; and that the analytic field is the only place from which it is possible to question the insufficiencies of science and philosophy.

Starting in 1962, a complex negotiation took place to determine the status of the SFP within the IPA. Lacan’s practice (with its controversial indeterminate-length sessions) and his critical stance towards psychoanalytic orthodoxy led, in August 1963, to the IPA setting the condition that registration of the SFP was dependent upon the removal of Lacan from the list of SFP analysts. With the SFP’s decision to honour this request in November 1963, Lacan had effectively been stripped of the right to conduct training analyses and thus was constrained to form his own institution in order to accommodate the many candidates who desired to continue their analyses with him. This he did, on 21 June 1964, in the “Founding Act” of what became known as the École Freudienne de Paris (EFP), taking “many representatives of the third generation with him: among them were Maud and Octave Mannoni, Serge Leclaire…and Jean Clavreul”.
With Lévi-Strauss and Althusser’s support, Lacan was appointed lecturer at the École Pratique des Hautes Etudes. He started with a seminar on The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis in January 1964 in the Dussane room at the École Normale Supérieure. Lacan began to set forth his own approach to psychoanalysis to an audience of colleagues that had joined him from the SFP. His lectures also attracted many of the École Normale’s students. He divided the École freudienne de Paris into three sections: the section of pure psychoanalysis (training and elaboration of the theory, where members who have been analyzed but haven’t become analysts can participate); the section for applied psychoanalysis (therapeutic and clinical, physicians who either have not started or have not yet completed analysis are welcome); and the section for taking inventory of the Freudian field (concerning the critique of psychoanalytic literature and the analysis of the theoretical relations with related or affiliated sciences). In 1967 he invented the procedure of the Pass, which was added to the statutes after being voted in by the members of the EFP the following year.
1966 saw the publication of Lacan’s collected writings, the Écrits, compiled with an index of concepts by Jacques-Alain Miller. Printed by the prestigious publishing house Éditions du Seuil, the Écrits did much to establish Lacan’s reputation to a wider public. The success of the publication led to a subsequent two-volume edition in 1969.
By the 1960s, Lacan was associated, at least in the public mind, with the far left in France. In May 1968, Lacan voiced his sympathy for the student protests and as a corollary his followers set up a Department of Psychology at the University of Vincennes (Paris VIII). However, Lacan’s unequivocal comments in 1971 on revolutionary ideals in politics draw a sharp line between the actions of some of his followers and his own style of “revolt”.[17]
In 1969, Lacan moved his public seminars to the Faculté de Droit (Panthéon), where he continued to deliver his expositions of analytic theory and practice until the dissolution of his School in 1980.
Throughout the final decade of his life, Lacan continued his widely followed seminars. During this period, he developed his concepts of masculine and feminine jouissance and placed an increased emphasis on the concept of “the Real” as a point of impossible contradictionin the “Symbolic order”. Lacan continued to draw widely on various disciplines, working closely on classical Chinese literature withFrançois Cheng and on the life and work of James Joyce with Jacques Aubert. This late work had the greatest influence on feminist thought, as well as upon the informal movement that arose in the 1970s or 1980s called post-modernism. The growing success of theÉcrits, which was translated (in abridged form) into German and English, led to invitations to lecture in Italy, Japan and the United States. Lacan’s 1975 lectures at Yale, Columbia and MIT brought him into contact with Quine and Chomsky.

Last years
Lacan’s failing health made it difficult for him to meet the demands of the year-long Seminars he had been delivering since the fifties, but his teaching continued into the first year of the eighties. After dissolving his School, the EFP, in January 1980, Lacan travelled to Caracas to found the Freudian Field Institute on 12 July.
The Overture to the Caracas Encounter was to be Lacan’s final public address. His last texts from the spring of 1981 are brief institutional documents pertaining to the newly-formed Freudian Field Institute.
Lacan died on 9 September 1981.

Major concepts
Return to Freud
Lacan’s “return to Freud” emphasizes a renewed attention to the original texts of Freud, and included a radical critique of Ego psychology, whereas “Lacan’s quarrel with Object Relations psychoanalysis” was a more muted affair. Here he attempted “to restore to the notion of the Object Relation… the capital of experience that legitimately belongs to it”, building upon what he termed “the hesitant, but controlled work of Melanie Klein… Through her we know the function of the imaginary primordial enclosure formed by the imago of the mother’s body”, as well as upon “the notion of the transitional object, introduced by D. W. Winnicott… a key-point for the explanation of the genesis of fetishism”. Nevertheless, “Lacan systematically questioned those psychoanalytic developments from the 1930s to the 1970s, which were increasingly and almost exclusively focused on the child’s early relations with the mother… the pre-Oedipal or Kleinian mother”; and Lacan’s rereading of Freud—”characteristically, Lacan insists that his return to Freud supplies the only valid model” —formed a basic conceptual starting-point in that oppositional strategy.

Lacan thought that Freud’s ideas of “slips of the tongue,” jokes, and the interpretation of dreams all emphasized the agency of language in subjective constitution. In “The Agency of the Letter in the Unconscious, or Reason Since Freud,” he proposes that “the unconscious is structured like a language.” The unconscious is not a primitive or archetypal part of the mind separate from the conscious, linguistic ego, he explained, but rather a formation as complex and structurally sophisticated as consciousness itself. One consequence of the unconscious being structured like a language is that the self is denied any point of reference to which to be “restored” following trauma or a crisis of identity.
Andre Green objected that “when you read Freud, it is obvious that this proposition doesn’t work for a minute. Freud very clearly opposes the unconscious (which he says is constituted by thing-presentations and nothing else) to the pre-conscious. What is related to language can only belong to the pre-conscious”. Freud certainly contrasted “the presentation of the word and the presentation of the thing… the unconscious presentation is the presentation of the thing alone” in his metapsychology. However “Dylan Evans, Dictionary of Lacanian Psychoanalysis… takes issue with those who, like Andre Green, question the linguistic aspect of the unconscious, emphasizing Lacan’s distinction between das Ding and die Sache in Freud’s account of thing-presentation”. Green’s criticism of Lacan also included accusations of intellectual dishonesty, he said, “[He] cheated everybody… the return to Freud was an excuse, it just meant going to Lacan.”
lacan 3 mirror stage
Mirror stage

Lacan’s first official contribution to psychoanalysis was the mirror stage, which he described as “formative of the function of the I as revealed in psychoanalytic experience.” By the early 1950s, he came to regard the mirror stage as more than a moment in the life of the infant; instead, it formed part of the permanent structure of subjectivity. In “the Imaginary order,” their own image permanently catches and captivates the subject. Lacan explains that “the mirror stage is a phenomenon to which I assign a twofold value. In the first place, it has historical value as it marks a decisive turning-point in the mental development of the child. In the second place, it typifies an essential libidinal relationship with the body-image”.
As this concept developed further, the stress fell less on its historical value and more on its structural value. In his fourth Seminar, “La relation d’objet,” Lacan states that “the mirror stage is far from a mere phenomenon which occurs in the development of the child. It illustrates the conflictual nature of the dual relationship.”

The mirror stage describes the formation of the Ego via the process of objectification, the Ego being the result of a conflict between one’s perceived visual appearance and one’s emotional experience. This identification is what Lacan called alienation. At six months, the baby still lacks physical co-ordination. The child is able to recognize themselves in a mirror prior to the attainment of control over their bodily movements. The child sees their image as a whole and the synthesis of this image produces a sense of contrast with the lack of co-ordination of the body, which is perceived as a fragmented body. The child experiences this contrast initially as a rivalry with their image, because the wholeness of the image threatens the child with fragmentation—thus the mirror stage gives rise to an aggressive tension between the subject and the image. To resolve this aggressive tension, the child identifies with the image: this primary identification with the counterpart forms the Ego. Lacan understands this moment of identification as a moment of jubilation, since it leads to an imaginary sense of mastery; yet when the child compares their own precarious sense of mastery with the omnipotence of the mother, a depressive reaction may accompany the jubilation.[34]
Lacan calls the specular image “orthopaedic,” since it leads the child to anticipate the overcoming of its “real specific prematurity of birth.” The vision of the body as integrated and contained, in opposition to the child’s actual experience of motor incapacity and the sense of his or her body as fragmented, induces a movement from “insufficiency to anticipation.” In other words, the mirror image initiates and then aids, like a crutch, the process of the formation of an integrated sense of self.
In the mirror stage a “misunderstanding” (méconnaissance) constitutes the Ego—the “me” (moi) becomes alienated from itself through the introduction of an imaginary dimension to the subject. The mirror stage also has a significant symbolic dimension, due to the presence of the figure of the adult who carries the infant. Having jubilantly assumed the image as their own, the child turns their head towards this adult, who represents the big Other, as if to call on the adult to ratify this image.

While Freud uses the term “other”, referring to der Andere (the other person) and “das Andere” (otherness), under the influence ofAlexandre Kojève, Lacan’s use is closer to Hegel’s.
Lacan often used an algebraic symbology for his concepts: the big Other is designated A (for French Autre) and the little other is designated a (italicized French autre). He asserts that an awareness of this distinction is fundamental to analytic practice: “the analyst must be imbued with the difference between A and a, so he can situate himself in the place of Other, and not the other.” Dylan Evans explains that:
“1. The little other is the other who is not really other, but a reflection and projection of the Ego. He [autre] is simultaneously the counterpart and the specular image. The little other is thus entirely inscribed in the imaginary order.
2. The big Other designates radical alterity, an other-ness which transcends the illusory otherness of the imaginary because it cannot be assimilated through identification. Lacan equates this radical alterity with language and the law, and hence the big Other is inscribed in the order of the symbolic. Indeed, the big Other is the symbolic insofar as it is particularized for each subject. The Other is thus both another subject, in his radical alterity and unassimilable uniqueness, and also the symbolic order which mediates the relationship with that other subject.”
“The Other must first of all be considered a locus,” Lacan writes, “the locus in which speech is constituted”. We can speak of the Other as a subject in a secondary sense only when a subject occupies this position and thereby embodies the Other for another subject.
In arguing that speech originates not in the Ego nor in the subject but rather in the Other, Lacan stresses that speech and language are beyond the subject’s conscious control. They come from another place, outside of consciousness—”the unconscious is the discourse of the Other.” When conceiving the Other as a place, Lacan refers to Freud’s concept of psychical locality, in which the unconscious is described as “the other scene”.
“It is the mother who first occupies the position of the big Other for the child,” Dylan Evans explains, “it is she who receives the child’s primitive cries and retroactively sanctions them as a particular message”. The castration complex is formed when the child discovers that this Other is not complete because there is a “Lack (manque)” in the Other. This means that there is always a signifier missing from the trove of signifiers constituted by the Other. Lacan illustrates this incomplete Other graphically by striking a bar through the symbol A; hence another name for the castrated, incomplete Other is the “barred Other.”

Feminist thinkers have both utilised and criticised Lacan’s concepts of castration and the Phallus. Some feminists have argued that Lacan’s phallocentric analysis provides a useful means of understanding gender biases and imposed roles, while other feminist critics, most notably Luce Irigaray, accuse Lacan of maintaining the sexist tradition in psychoanalysis. For Irigaray, the Phallus does not define a single axis of gender by its presence/absence; instead, gender has two positive poles. Like Irigaray, Jacques Derrida, in criticizing Lacan’s concept of castration, discusses the phallus in a chiasmus with the hymen, as both one and other. Other feminists, such as Judith Butler, Avital Ronell, Jane Gallop, and Elizabeth Grosz, have interpreted Lacan’s work as opening up new possibilities for feminist theory.
The three orders
The Imaginary

The Imaginary is the field of images and imagination, and deception. The main illusions of this order are synthesis, autonomy, duality, and similarity. Lacan thought that the relationship created within the mirror stage between the Ego and the reflected image means that the Ego and the Imaginary order itself are places of radical alienation: “alienation is constitutive of the Imaginary order.” This relationship is also narcissistic.
In The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis, Lacan argues that the Symbolic order structures the visual field of the Imaginary, which means that it involves a linguistic dimension. If the signifier is the foundation of the Symbolic, the signified and signification are part of the Imaginary order. Language has Symbolic and Imaginary connotations—in its Imaginary aspect, language is the “wall of language” that inverts and distorts the discourse of the Other. On the other hand, the Imaginary is rooted in the subject’s relationship with his or her own body (the image of the body). In Fetishism: the Symbolic, the Imaginary and the Real, Lacan argues that in the sexual plane the Imaginary appears as sexual display and courtship love.
Insofar as identification with the analyst is the objective of analysis, Lacan accused major psychoanalytic schools of reducing the practice of psychoanalysis to the Imaginary order. Instead, Lacan proposes the use of the Symbolic to dislodge the disabling fixations of the Imaginary—the analyst transforms the images into words. “The use of the Symbolic,” he argued, “is the only way for the analytic process to cross the plane of identification.”
The Symbolic

In his Seminar IV, “La relation d’objet,” Lacan argues that the concepts of “Law” and “Structure” are unthinkable without language—thusthe Symbolic is a linguistic dimension. This order is not equivalent to language, however, since language involves the Imaginary and the Real as well. The dimension proper to language in the Symbolic is that of the signifier—that is, a dimension in which elements have no positive existence, but which are constituted by virtue of their mutual differences.
The Symbolic is also the field of radical alterity—that is, the Other; the unconscious is the discourse of this Other. It is the realm of the Law that regulates desire in the Oedipus complex. The Symbolic is the domain of culture as opposed to the Imaginary order of nature. As important elements in the Symbolic, the concepts of death and lack (manque) connive to make of the pleasure principle the regulator of the distance from the Thing (“das Ding an sich”) and the death drive that goes “beyond the pleasure principle by means of repetition”—”the death drive is only a mask of the Symbolic order.”
By working in the Symbolic order, the analyst is able to produce changes in the subjective position of the analysand. These changes will produce imaginary effects because the Imaginary is structured by the Symbolic.

The Real

Lacan’s concept of the Real dates back to 1936 and his doctoral thesis on psychosis. It was a term that was popular at the time, particularly with Émile Meyerson, who referred to it as “an ontological absolute, a true being-in-itself”. Lacan returned to the theme of the Real in 1953 and continued to develop it until his death. The Real, for Lacan, is not synonymous with reality. Not only opposed to the Imaginary, the Real is also exterior to the Symbolic. Unlike the latter, which is constituted in terms of oppositions (i.e. presence/absence), “there is no absence in the Real.” Whereas the Symbolic opposition “presence/absence” implies the possibility that something may be missing from the Symbolic, “the Real is always in its place.” If the Symbolic is a set of differentiated elements (signifiers), the Real in itself is undifferentiated—it bears no fissure. The Symbolic introduces “a cut in the real” in the process of signification: “it is the world of words that creates the world of things—things originally confused in the “here and now” of the all in the process of coming into being.” The Real is that which is outside language and that resists symbolization absolutely. In Seminar XI Lacan defines the Real as “the impossible” because it is impossible to imagine, impossible to integrate into the Symbolic, and impossible to attain. It is this resistance to symbolization that lends the Real its traumatic quality. Finally, the Real is the object of anxiety, insofar as it lacks any possible mediation and is “the essential object which is not an object any longer, but this something faced with which all words cease and all categories fail, the object of anxiety par excellence.”
Lacan’s conception of desire is central to his theories and follows Freud’s concept of Wunsch. The aim of psychoanalysis is to lead the analysand and to uncover the truth about his or her desire, but this is possible only if that desire is articulated. Lacan wrote that “it is only once it is formulated, named in the presence of the other, that desire appears in the full sense of the term.” This naming of desire “is not a question of recognizing something which would be entirely given. In naming it, the subject creates, brings forth, a new presence in the world.” Psychoanalysis teaches the patient “to bring desire into existence.” The truth about desire is somehow present in discourse, although discourse is never able to articulate the entire truth about desire—whenever discourse attempts to articulate desire, there is always a leftover or surplus.
In “The Signification of the Phallus,” Lacan distinguishes desire from need and demand. Need is a biological instinct that is articulated in demand, yet demand has a double function: on the one hand, it articulates need, and on the other, acts as a demand for love. Even after the need articulated in demand is satisfied, the demand for love remains unsatisfied. This remainder is desire. For Lacan, “desire is neither the appetite for satisfaction nor the demand for love, but the difference that results from the subtraction of the first from the second.” Lacan adds that “desire begins to take shape in the margin in which demand becomes separated from need.” Hence desire can never be satisfied, or as Slavoj Žižek puts it, “desire’s raison d’être is not to realize its goal, to find full satisfaction, but to reproduce itself as desire.”
It is also important to distinguish between desire and the drives. The drives are the partial manifestations of a single force called desire. Lacan’s concept of the “objet petit a” is the object of desire, although this object is not that towards which desire tends, but rather the cause of desire. Desire is not a relation to an object but a relation to a lack (manque).
Lacan maintains Freud’s distinction between drive (Trieb) and instinct (Instinkt). Drives differ from biological needs because they can never be satisfied and do not aim at an object but rather circle perpetually around it. The true source of jouissance is the repetition of the movement of this closed circuit. Lacan posits the drives as both cultural and symbolic constructs—to him, “the drive is not a given, something archaic, primordial.” He incorporates the four elements of the drives as defined by Freud (the pressure, the end, the object and the source) to his theory of the drive’s circuit: the drive originates in the erogenous zone, circles round the object, and returns to the erogenous zone. The three grammatical voices structure this circuit:
1. the active voice (to see)
2. the reflexive voice (to see oneself)
3. the passive voice (to be seen)
The active and reflexive voices are autoerotic—they lack a subject. It is only when the drive completes its circuit with the passive voice that a new subject appears. Despite being the “passive” voice, the drive is essentially active: “to make oneself be seen” rather than “to be seen.” The circuit of the drive is the only way for the subject to transgress the pleasure principle.
Lacan identifies four partial drives: the oral drive (the erogenous zones are the lips, the partial object the breast), the anal drive (the anus and the faeces), the scopic drive (the eyes and the gaze) and the invocatory drive (the ears and the voice). The first two relate to demand and the last two to desire. If the drives are closely related to desire, they are the partial aspects in which desire is realized—desire is one and undivided, whereas the drives are its partial manifestations.
lacan 6
Other concepts
• Name of the Father
• Foreclosure (psychoanalysis)
• Lack (manque)
• Objet petit a
• The graph of desire
• Matheme
• Sinthome
• The Four discourses

Les Non-dupes errent”: Lacan on error and knowledge
Building on Freud’s The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, Lacan long argued that “every unsuccessful act is a successful, not to say ‘well-turned’, discourse”, highlighting as well “sudden transformations of errors into truths, which seemed to be due to nothing more than perseverance”. In a late seminar, he generalised more fully the psychoanalytic discovery of “truth—arising from misunderstanding”, so as to maintain that “the subject is naturally erring… discourse structures alone give him his moorings and reference points, signs identify and orient him; if he neglects, forgets, or loses them, he is condemned to err anew”.
Because of “the alienation to which speaking beings are subjected due to their being in language”, to survive “one must let oneself be taken in by signs and become the dupe of a discourse… [of] fictions organized in to a discourse”. For Lacan, with “masculine knowledge irredeemably an erring”, the individual “must thus allow himself to be fooled by these signs to have a chance of getting his bearings amidst them; he must place and maintain himself in the wake of a discourse… become the dupe of a discourse… les Non-dupes errent”
Lacan comes close here to one of the points where “very occasionally he sounds like Thomas Kuhn (whom he never mentions)”, with Lacan’s “discourse” resembling Kuhn’s “paradigm” seen as “the entire constellation of beliefs, values, techniques, and so on shared by the members of a given community” – something reinforced perhaps by Kuhn’s approval of “Francis Bacon’s acute methodological dictum: ‘Truth emerges more readily from error than from confusion’”.
Clinical contributions
Variable-length session
The “variable-length psychoanalytic session” was one of Lacan’s crucial clinical innovations and a key element in his conflicts with the IPA, to whom his “innovation of reducing the fifty-minute analytic hour to a Delphic seven or eight minutes (or sometimes even to a single oracular parole murmured in the waiting-room)” was unacceptable. Lacan’s variable-length sessions lasted anywhere from a few minutes (or even, if deemed appropriate by the analyst, a few seconds) to several hours . This practice replaced the classical Freudian “fifty minute hour”.
With respect to what he called “the cutting up of the ‘timing’”, Lacan asked the question, “Why make an intervention impossible at this point, which is consequently privileged in this way?” By allowing the analyst’s intervention on timing, the variable-length session removed the patient’s—or, technically, “the analys and’s”—former certainty as to the length of time that they would be on the couch. When Lacan adopted the practice, “the psychoanalytic establishment were scandalized” —and, given that “between 1979 and 1980 he saw an average of ten patients an hour”, it is perhaps not hard to see why: “psychoanalysis reduced to zero”, if no less lucrative.
At the time of his original innovation, Lacan described the issue as concerning “the systematic use of shorter sessions in certain analyses, and in particular in training analyses”; and in practice it was certainly a shortening of the session around the so-called “critical moment” which took place, so that critics wrote that ‘everyone is well aware what is meant by the deceptive phrase “variable length”… sessions systematically reduced to just a few minutes’. Irrespective of the theoretical merits of breaking up patients’ expectations, it was clear that “the Lacanian analyst never wants to ‘shake up’ the routine by keeping them for more rather than less time”.
“Whatever the justification, the practical effects were startling. It does not take a cynic to point out that Lacan was able to take on many more analysands than anyone using classical Freudian techniques… [and] as the technique was adopted by his pupils and followers an almost exponential rate of growth became possible”.
Accepting the importance of “the critical moment when insight arises”, object relations theory would nonetheless quietly suggest that “if the analyst does not provide the patient with space in which nothing needs to happen there is no space in which something can happen”. Julia Kristeva, if in very different language, would concur that “Lacan, alert to the scandal of the timeless intrinsic to the analytic experience, was mistaken in wanting to ritualize it as a technique of scansion (short sessions)”.
Writings and writing style
Most of Lacan’s psychoanalytic writings from the forties through to the early sixties were compiled with an index of concepts by Jacques-Alain Miller in the 1966 collection, titled simply Écrits. Published in French by Éditions du Seuil, they were later issued as a two-volume set (1970/1) with a new “Preface”. A selection of the writings (chosen by Lacan himself) were translated by Alan Sheridan and published by Tavistock Press in 1977. The full 35-text volume appeared for the first time in English in Bruce Fink’s translation published by Norton & Co. (2006). The Écrits were included on the list of 100 most influential books of the 20th century compiled and polled by the broadsheet Le Monde.
Lacan’s writings from the late sixties and seventies (thus subsequent to the 1966 collection) were collected posthumously, along with some early texts from the nineteen thirties, in the Éditions du Seuil volume Autres écrits (2001).
Although most of the texts in Écrits and Autres écrits are closely related to Lacan’s lectures or lessons from his Seminar, more often than not the style is denser than Lacan’s oral delivery, and a clear distinction between the writings and the transcriptions of the oral teaching is evident to the reader.
Jacques-Alain Miller is the sole editor of Lacan’s seminars, which contain the majority of his life’s work. “There has been considerable controversy over the accuracy or otherwise of the transcription and editing”, as well as over “Miller’s refusal to allow any critical or annotated edition to be published”. Despite Lacan’s status as a major figure in the history of psychoanalysis, some of his seminars remain unpublished. Since 1984, Miller has been regularly conducting a series of lectures, “L’orientation lacanienne.” Miller’s teachings have been published in the US by the journal Lacanian Ink.
Lacan claimed that his Écrits were not to be understood rationally, but would rather produce an effect in the reader similar to the sense of enlightenment one might experience while reading mystical texts. Lacan’s writing is notoriously difficult, due in part to the repeated Hegelian/Kojèvean allusions, wide theoretical divergences from other psychoanalytic and philosophical theory, and an obscure prose style. For some, “the impenetrability of Lacan’s prose… [is] too often regarded as profundity precisely because it cannot be understood”. Arguably at least, “the imitation of his style by other ‘Lacanian’ commentators” has resulted in “an obscurantist antisystematic tradition in Lacanian literature”.
The broader psychotherapeutic literature has little or nothing to say about the effectiveness of Lacanian psychoanalysis. Though a major influence on psychoanalysis in France and parts of Latin America, Lacan’s influence on clinical psychology in the English-speaking world is negligible, where his ideas are best known in the arts and humanities.
A notable exception is the works of Dr. Annie G. Rogers (A Shining Affliction; The Unsayable: The Hidden Language of Trauma), which credit Lacanian theory for many therapeutic insights in successfully treating sexually abused young women.
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Alan D. Sokal and Jean Bricmont in their book Fashionable Nonsense have criticised Lacan’s use of terms from mathematical fields such as topology, accusing him of “superficial erudition” and of abusing scientific concepts that he does not understand. Other critics have dismissed Lacan’s work wholesale. François Roustang called it an “incoherent system of pseudo-scientific gibberish,” and quoted linguist Noam Chomsky’s opinion that Lacan was an “amusing and perfectly self-conscious charlatan”. Dylan Evans, formerly a Lacanian analyst, eventually dismissed Lacanianism as lacking a sound scientific basis and for harming rather than helping patients, and has criticized Lacan’s followers for treating his writings as “holy writ.” Richard Webster has decried what he sees as Lacan’s obscurity, arrogance, and the resultant “Cult of Lacan”. Richard Dawkins, in a review of Fashionable Nonsense, said regarding Lacan: “We do not need the mathematical expertise of Sokal and Bricmont to assure us that the author of this stuff is a fake. Perhaps he is genuine when he speaks of non-scientific subjects? But a philosopher who is caught equating the erectile organ to the square root of minus one has, for my money, blown his credentials when it comes to things that I don’t know anything about.”
Lacan’s colleague Daniel Lagache considered that “[Lacan] embodied the analyst’s bad conscience. But… a good conscience in a psychoanalyst is no less dangerous” Others have been more forceful, describing him as “The Shrink from Hell… [an] attractive psychopath”, and detailing a long list of collateral damage to “patients, colleagues, mistresses, wives, children, publishers, editors and opponents… [as his] lunatic legacy”. Certainly many of “the conflicts around Lacan’s school and his person” have been linked to the “form of charismatic authority which, in his personal and institutional presence, he so dramatically provoked”. Lacan himself defended his approach on the grounds that “psychosis is an attempt at rigor… I am psychotic for the simple reason that I have always tried to be rigorous”.
Malcolm Bowie has suggested that Lacan “had the fatal weakness of all those who are fanatically against all forms of totalization (the complete picture) in the so-called human sciences: a love of system”. Similarly, Jacqueline Rose has argued that “Lacan was implicated in the phallocentrism he described, just as his utterance constantly rejoins the mastery which he sought to undermine”. Feminists would then raise the question: “is Lacan, in claiming the law of the father, merely himself in the grip of the Oedipus complex?”
While it is widely recognised that “Lacan was… an intellectual magpie”, this was not simply a matter of borrowing from others. Instead, “Lacan was so zealous in invoking other men’s work and claiming to base his own arguments on them, when in reality he was departing from their teachings, leaving behind mere skeletons”. Even with Freud, it is seldom clearly signposted when Lacan is expounding Freud, when he is reinterpreting Freud, or when he is proposing a completely new theory in Freudian guise. The result was “a complete pattern of dissenting assent to the ideas of Freud… Lacan’s argument is conducted on Freud’s behalf and, at the same time, against him”, so as to leave Lacan himself the “master” of his (and everyone’s) thought. “Castoriadis… maintained that Lacan had gradually come to prevent anyone else from thinking because of the way he tried to make all thought dependent on himself”.
More personal criticism of his intellectual style is that it depended on a kind of teasing lure—”fundamental truths to be revealed… but always at some further point”. In such a (feminist) perspective, “Lacan’s sadistic capriciousness reveals the prick behind the Phallus… a narcissistic tease who persuades by means of attraction and resistance, not by orderly systematic discourse”. To intimates like Dolto, “Lacan was like a narcissistic and wayward child… All he thought about was himself and his work”. Yet if Lacan was a narcissist, if his writings are essentially “the confessions of a self-justifying megalomaniac”, fuelled by “Lacan’s craving for recognition—his almost demonic hunger” —if they reveal “a narcissistic enjoyment of mystification as a form of omnipotent power… phantasies of narcissistic omnipotence”, yet Lacan was clearly one of “what Maccoby calls ‘productive narcissists’… [who] get others to buy into their vision and help to make it a reality… the narcissists who change our world”.
Selected works published in English listed below.
• The Language of the Self: The Function of Language in Psychoanalysis, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1968.
• Écrits: A Selection*, transl. by Alan Sheridan, New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1977, and revised version, 2002, transl. by Bruce Fink
• Écrits: The First Complete Edition in English, transl. by Bruce Fink, New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2006.
• The Seminar, Book I. Freud’s Papers on Technique, 1953–1954, edited by Jacques-Alain Miller, transl. by John Forrester, W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 1988
• The Seminar, Book II. The Ego in Freud’s Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis, 1954–1955, ed. by Jacques-Alain Miller, transl. by Sylvana Tomaselli, W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 1988.
• The Seminar, Book III. The Psychoses, edited by Jacques-Alain Miller, transl. by Russell Grigg, W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 1993.
• The Seminar, Book VII. The Ethics of Psychoanalysis, 1959–1960, ed. by Jacques-Alain Miller, transl. by Dennis Porter, W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 1992.
• The Seminar, Book XI, The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis, ed. by Jacques-Alain Miller, transl. by Alan Sheridan, W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 1977.
• The Seminar XVII, The Other Side of Psychoanalysis, ed. by Jacques-Alain Miller, transl. by Russell Grigg, W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 2007.
• The Seminar XX, Encore: On Feminine Sexuality, the Limits of Love and Knowledge, ed. by Jacques-Alain Miller, transl. by Bruce Fink, W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 1998.
• Television/ A Challenge to the Psychoanalytic Establishment, ed. Joan Copjec, trans. Rosalind Krauss, Jeffrey Mehlman, et al., W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 1990.

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